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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 342-344

Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with metabolic syndrome


1 Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication11-Oct-2013

Correspondence Address:
Laxmikant R Tomar
Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi - 110 095
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.119612

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   Abstract 

Introduction: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are endocrinal disruptors that tend to accumulate in adipose tissue and have been found to be associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Aim and Objectives: 1. To measure serum OCP levels in patients of MS and control subjects, 2. To identify differences, if any, in serum OCP levels, in patients with MS and control subjects. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in the Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry at University College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital (GTBH), Delhi. Nine OCPs [α-HCH (Hexachlorocyclohexane), β-HCH, g-HCH, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDT (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane), and p, p'-DDE (Dichloro-diphenyl-dichloro-ethylene)] were studied. Fifty subjects ≥18 years with MS (study group) and 50 age and sex-matched controls were included in the study. Exclusion criteria: (1) Persons having chronic occupational exposure to OCPs such as workers of pesticide factories, (2) Recent exposure to OCPs within 4 weeks. Results: Levels of all nine OCPs were higher in cases as compared to controls. However, only the mean value of β-HCH in cases (8.40 ± 8.64 ng/ml) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher as compared to controls (2.58 ± 2.34 ng/ml). After adjustment of confounding factors like age, sex, smoking, alcohol, and body mass index (BMI), only β-HCH and aldrin levels were positively and significantly associated with the risk of having MS. Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) was 1.34 [CI = 1.14-1.57 (P < 0.001)] and 1.23 [CI = 1.01-1.50 (P = 0.045)], respectively. Conclusion: There was a significant association of β- HCH and aldrin levels with MS.

Keywords: Aldrin, β-Hexachlorocyclohexane, metabolic syndrome, organochlorine pesticides


How to cite this article:
Tomar LR, Agarwal MP, Avasthi R, Tyagi V, Mustafa M, Banerjee B D. Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Indian J Endocr Metab 2013;17, Suppl S1:342-4

How to cite this URL:
Tomar LR, Agarwal MP, Avasthi R, Tyagi V, Mustafa M, Banerjee B D. Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Apr 4];17, Suppl S1:342-4. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/7/342/119612


   Introduction Top


Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of risk factors including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and central obesity. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are a group of Persistent Organic Pollutants such as Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and its isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, p, p'- Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT), and p, p'- Dichloro-diphenyl-dichloro-ethylene (DDE). Humans are exposed to pesticides by different routes such as inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. [1] OCPs are endocrine disrupting chemicals stored in adipose tissue because of their persistence in the environment and high bioaccumulative nature. [2] OCPs have also been shown to have a strong association with insulin resistant type 2 diabetes. [3],[4],[5] Only a few earlier studies have revealed an association between OCPs and MS. [6]

Aim

  • To measure serum OCP levels in patients of MS and control subjects.
  • To identify differences, if any, in serum OCP levels, in patients with MS and control subjects.

   Materials and Methods Top


Cross-sectional study was conducted in the Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry at University College of Medical Sciences (UCMS) and Guru Teg Bahadur (GTB) Hospital, Delhi. For identification of MS, we used National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP)-III criteria modified as per International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (hypertension ≥130/≥85 mmHg or on medication, fasting plasma glucose ≥110 mm/dL or on medication, HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL (men) or <50 mg/dL (women), plasma triglycerides (TGs) ≥150 mg/dL or on medication, waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥80 cm for females). There were a total of 100 subjects divided into two groups. Group I: Fifty individuals ≥18 years, with MS (study group) and Group II: 50 individuals with age and sex matched controls. Serum OCPs were measured and the levels in the two groups were compared.

Exclusion criteria

  • Persons having chronic occupational exposure to OCPs such as workers of pesticide factories,
  • Recent exposure to OCPs within 4 weeks
Waist circumference was measured midway between the inferior margin of rib cage and iliac crest. Plasma glucose was analyzed using glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. The blood pressure was measured after a 5 min rest in the right arm in the supine position. Three readings were taken at 5 min intervals and their mean was taken as the final reading. Blood was drawn after 8 hours of overnight fasting. Total cholesterol and triglycerides was estimated by enzymatic method. HDL cholesterol was estimated in serum by turbidimetric immunoassay. Serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) was estimated by using the formula VLDL = TG/5. Serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) was determined from the Friedewald's formula, LDL = total cholesterol-(HDL + VLDL). OCPs were extracted according to method of Bush et al.[7] Quantification of OCP levels was done by Perkin Elmer GC equipped with 63Ni selective electron capture detector. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4 picogram/mL (pg/mL) for each OCP.

Statistical analysis

The data for all the groups was expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The physical, biochemical parameters and levels of OCPs in cases and controls were compared by independent t-test. Risk of having MS with OCPs was calculated by using logistic regression analysis.


   Results Top


[Table 1] shows data for waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, HDL, and TGs of both cases and controls.
Table 1: Physical and biochemical data for cases and controls

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Although, OCP levels of cases were higher as compared to controls but only in case of β-HCH the mean value (8.40 ± 8.64 ng/ml) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher as compared to controls (2.58 ± 2.34 ng/ml). [Table 2] shows the data for levels of all nine OCPs.
Table 2: Levels of organochlorine pesticide in cases and controls

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After adjusting for confounding factors like age, sex, smoking, alcohol, and BMI, β-HCH as well as aldrin showed an association with MS. Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORs) for β-HCH and aldrin were 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14-1.57) and 1.23 (95% CI = 1.01-1.50), respectively. [Table 3] shows the risk of having MS with all nine OCPs after adjustment of confounders.
Table 3: Risk of metabolic syndrome with OCPs

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   Discussion Top


In our study, mean serum levels of all nine OCPs were higher in cases as compared to controls. Mean level of β-HCH in cases was significant higher (P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors the risk of having MS with β-HCH in study group was found to be 1.34 times higher as compared to control group (P < 0.001). β-HCH is the most persistent OCP still in use in developing countries like India and China. [8] It is more persistent and more slowly cleared from the body than other isomers, and is, therefore, the easiest isomer to detect in humans and is most likely to affect individual health chronically. [9] Similarly, risk of developing MS with exposure to aldrin was 1.23 times higher as compared to controls (P = 0.045). Aldrin is an OCP which was widely used in agriculture and public health programs in India. Because of low water solubility and tendency to bind strongly to soil, aldrin migrates downwards very slowly through soil, or into surface or ground water (ATSDR 2002). [10] This pesticide may also be associated with adverse neurological and reproductive effects.


   Conclusion Top


The results of our study suggest that background environmental exposure to some OCPs, especially β-HCH and aldrin, may be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. This highlights the need for active interventions on a national scale restricting the use of OCPs and there replacement by safer and environment friendly alternatives.

 
   References Top

1.Rekha, Naik SN, Prasad R. Pesticide residue in organic and conventional food-risk analysis, Chem Health Saf 2006;13:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Fisher BE. Most unwanted. Environ Health Perspect 1999;107:18-23.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Lee DH, Lee IK, Song K, Steffes M, Toscano W, Baker BA, et al. A strong dose-response relation between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and diabetes: Results from the National Health and Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1638-44.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Lee DH, Lee IK, Jin SH, Steffes M, Jacob DR. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and insulin resistance among non-diabetic adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetes Care 2007;30:622-28.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Lee DH, Lee IK, Porta M, Steffes M, Jacob DR. Relationship between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Diabetologia 2007;50:1841-51.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Park SK, Son HK, Lee SK, Kang JH, Chang YS, Lee DH, et al. Relationship between serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic adults. J Prev Med Public Health 2010;43:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Bush B, Snow J, Koblintz R. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners, p, p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene in maternal and fetal cord blood from mothers in Upstate New York. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1984;13:517-27.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Tanabe S, Kunisue T. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries. Environ Pollut 2007;146:400-13.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Willett KL, Ulrich EM, Hites RA. Differential toxicity and environmental fates of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers. Environ Sci Technol 1998;32:2197-207.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2002). Toxicological profile for aldrin/dieldrin. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available from: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp1.pdf [Last accessed June 1 st , 2013].  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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