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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 506-510

Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the North East India cohort of the A 1 chieve study


1 KPC Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Apollo Gleneagles, Sugar and Heart Clinic, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Dr. Lal Path Lab, Chandmari, Guwahati, Assam, India

Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2013

Correspondence Address:
Debmalya Sanyal
KPC Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.122102

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   Abstract 

Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from North East, India. Results: A total of 730 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 518), insulin detemir (n = 88), insulin aspart (n = 74), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 19) and other insulin combinations (n = 30). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.5%) and insulin users (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment, both groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.6%, insulin users: −1.5%). SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

Keywords: A 1 chieve study, insulin analogues, North East India, type 2 diabetes mellitus


How to cite this article:
Sanyal D, Basu D, Saikia M. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the North East India cohort of the A 1 chieve study. Indian J Endocr Metab 2013;17, Suppl S2:506-10

How to cite this URL:
Sanyal D, Basu D, Saikia M. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the North East India cohort of the A 1 chieve study. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Nov 15];17, Suppl S2:506-10. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/8/506/122102


   Introduction Top


62.4 million Indians were reported to have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) putting India on the forefront of diabetic epidemic across globe. [1],[2] Fear of hypoglycaemia and gain in body weight are barriers for initiation of insulin therapy. [3] Modern insulin analogues are a convenient new approach or tool to glycaemic control, associated with low number of hypoglycaemia and favourable weight change. [4] A 1 chieve, a multinational, 24-week, non-interventional study, assessed the safety and effectiveness of insulin analogues in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care. [5] This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from North East, India.


   Materials and Methods Top


Please refer to editorial titled: The A1chieve study: Mapping the Ibn Battuta trail.


   Results Top


A total of 730 patients were enrolled in the study. The patient characteristics for the entire cohort divided as insulin-naïve and insulin users is shown in the [Table 1]. Glycaemic control at baseline was poor in this population. The majority of patients (70.96%) started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart. Other groups were insulin detemir (n = 88), insulin aspart (n = 74), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 19) and other insulin combinations (n = 30).
Table 1: Overall demographic data

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After 24 weeks of treatment, overall hypoglycaemic events reduced from 0.9 events/patient-year to 0.5 events/patient-year and from 20.5 events/patient-year to 0.7 events/patient-year in insulin users. The hypoglycaemia incidence in insulin naive group at 24 weeks was lower than that observed in insulin users at baseline. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events did not occur in any of the study patients. Blood pressure decreased and overall lipid profile improved in the total cohort, but the findings were limited by number of observations. Quality of life improved at the end of the study [Table 2] and [Table 3].
Table 2: Overall safety data

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Table 3: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in the total cohort [Table 4].
Table 4: Overall efficacy data

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Biphasic insulin aspart ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 518 patients started on biphasic insulin aspart ± OGLD, of which 365 (70.5%) were insulin naïve and 153 (29.5%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of starting or switching to biphasic insulin aspart, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 1.0 events/patient-year to 0.5 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group and from 21.0 events/patient-year to 0.9 events/patient-year in insulin users. Quality of life also improved at the end of the study [Table 5] and [Table 6].
Table 5: Biphasic insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 6: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart for both insulin naïve and insulin user groups [Table 7].
Table 7: Biphasic insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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Basal + insulin aspart ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 19 patients on started on basal + insulin aspart ± OGLD, of which 5 (26.3%) were insulin naïve and 14 (73.7%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of treatment, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 17.6 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin user group, whereas hypoglycaemia remained nil in insulin naïve group similar to that of baseline. Body weight increased in insulin naïve group whereas it decreased in insulin users. Quality of life improved after 24 weeks of treatment [Table 8] and [Table 9].
Table 8: Basal+insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 9: Insulin dose

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Mean HbA 1 c and FPG values improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to basal + insulin aspart ± OGLDs for insulin naïve group whereas all aspects of glycaemic control improved in the insulin user group [Table 10].
Table 10: Basal+insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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Insulin detemir ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 88 patients started on insulin detemir ± OGLD, of which 83 (94.3%) were insulin naïve and 05 (5.7%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of starting or switching to insulin detemir, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 0.3 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group and from 26.0 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin users. Quality of life improved after 24 weeks of treatment [Table 11] and [Table 12].
Table 11: Insulin detemir±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 12: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to insulin detemir ± OGLDs for both insulin-naïve and insulin user groups [Table 13].
Table 13: Insulin detemir±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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Insulin aspart ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 74 patients started on insulin aspart ± OGLD was 74, of which 41 (55.4%) were insulin naïve and 33 (44.6%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of treatment, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 24.0 to 0.0 in insulin users group whereas hypoglycaemia increased from 0.6 events/patient-year to 1.5 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group. Quality of life improved after 24 weeks [Table 14] and [Table 15].
Table 14: Insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 15: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to insulin aspart ± OGLDs for insulin naïve population while mean HbA 1 c and FPG values improved in the insulin user population [Table 16].
Table 16: Insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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   Conclusion Top


Our study reports improved glycaemic control following 24 weeks of treatment with any of the insulin analogues (Biphasic insulin aspart; basal + insulin aspart; insulin detemir; insulin aspart) with or without OGLD. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Quality of life improved in biphasic insulin aspart, insulin detemir and insulin aspart groups. Overall, an increase in body weight was noted for both insulin naïve and users group. Though the findings are limited by number of patients, still the trend indicates that insulin analogues can be considered effective and possess a safe profile for treating type 2 diabetes in North East India.

 
   References Top

1.Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Shetty P. Public health: India's diabetes time bomb. Nature 2012;485:S14-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Korytkowski M. When oral agents fail: Practical barriers to starting insulin. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26 Suppl 3:S18-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Hirsch IB. Insulin analogues. N Engl J Med 2005;352:174-83.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Shah SN, Litwak L, Haddad J, Chakkarwar PN, Hajjaji I. The A 1 chieve study: A 60 000-person, global, prospective, observational study of basal, meal-time, and biphasic insulin analogs in daily clinical practice. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;88 Suppl 1:S11-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13], [Table 14], [Table 15], [Table 16]



 

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