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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 705-721

Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis


1 Department of Pharmacology, Dayanad Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Marksman Healthcare, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Kirandeep Kaur
Department of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, College Campus, Civil Lines, Ludhiana - 141 001,Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.167562

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Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in combination therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control. Methods: Two review authors independently searched for the relevant randomized controlled clinical trials from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, IndMed, LILACS, and clinical trials registry www.clinicaltrials.gov. Primary outcomes for this review included: change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and risk of occurrence of genital mycotic infections at 26 weeks. We combined results using mean difference (MD) for continuous data, and risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data. Results: Of the 124 identified reports, five RCTs with 3565 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. All included studies had compared canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg once daily with placebo or sitagliptin 100 mg once daily. We judged that most of the studies had low risk of bias or unclear risk of bias in five major domains. Canagliflozin 300 mg once daily led to a significant decrease in HbA1c levels (IV Fixed -0.77, 95% CI [-0.90, -0.64] P < 0.00001) and FPG levels (IV Fixed -2.08; 95% CI [-2.32, -1.84], P <0.00001), body weight, systolic blood pressure and triglyceride levels after 26 weeks as compared to placebo. There was a also a significant difference in the efficacy of canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg once daily in favour of canagliflozin. Both doses of canagliflozin led to genital mycotic infections among males and females, urinary tract infections, pollakiuria, polyuria and postural dizziness. Conclusions: Canagliflozin significantly decreases HbA1c and FPG levels and body weight as compared to placebo among patients with inadequate glycemic control with an earlier regime of glucose lowering agents. Long term safety studies are required to evaluate the incidence of adverse events.


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