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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 753-763

Pituitary and/or hypothalamic dysfunction following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: Current perspectives

1 Department of Academic Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull and East Yorkshire NHS Trust, Hull, UK
2 The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Department of Clinical Pathology, Punjab Health Department, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Zeeshan Javed
Department of Academic Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull and East Yorkshire NHS Trust, Hull
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.167561

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There is an increasing deliberation regarding hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and recent data have suggested that pituitary dysfunction is very common among survivors of patients having moderate-severe TBI which may evolve or resolve over time. Due to high prevalence of pituitary dysfunction after moderate-severe TBI and its association with increased morbidity and poor recovery and the fact that it can be easily treated with hormone replacement, it has been suggested that early detection and treatment is necessary to prevent long-term neurological consequences. The cause of pituitary dysfunction after TBI is still not well understood, but evidence suggests few possible primary and secondary causes. Results of recent studies focusing on the incidence of hypopituitarism in the acute and chronic phases after TBI are varied in terms of severity and time of occurrence. Although the literature available does not show consistent values and there is difference in study parameters and diagnostic tests used, it is clear that pituitary dysfunction is very common after moderate to severe TBI and patients should be carefully monitored. The exact timing of development cannot be predicted but has suggested regular assessment of pituitary function up to 1 year after TBI. In this narrative review, we aim to explore the current evidence available regarding the incidence of pituitary dysfunction in acute and chronic phase post-TBI and recommendations for screening and follow-up in these patients. We will also focus light over areas in this field worthy of further investigation.

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