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BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 34-35

Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in India


Consultant Endocrinologist, Centre for Diabetes and Endocrine Care, Bangalore Diabetes hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication17-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Kanakatte Mylariah Prasanna Kumar
Bangalore Diabetes Hospital, 16/M, Miller Tank Bed Area, Thimmaiah Road, Vasanth Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 002, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.155378

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   Abstract 

It is estimated that India is housing about 97,700 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A study of 30 children with insulin-dependent diabetes with age at diagnosis ≤15 years, conducted in 1992, reported a prevalence of 0.26/1000 children. The peak age at diagnosis was 12 years. This was the first population-based study of prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes in South India and shows that insulin-dependent diabetes is not rare and is higher than that reported from many other Asian countries. The Karnataka state T1DM registry listed an incidence of 3.7/100,000 in boys and 4.0/100,000 in girls over 13 years of data collection. At Karnal, in Haryana, the prevalence of T1DM is 26.6/100,000 in urban and 4.27/100,000 in rural areas of the district, leading to an average prevalence of 10.20/100,000 population. Karnal city has a relatively high prevalence of T1DM (31.9/100,000). An estimated 18,000 children under the age of 15 were newly diagnosed for T1DM in the year 2011 in the above-mentioned regions. The prevalence of T1DM in children is 111,500 according to a World Health Organization report of the International Diabetes Federation for the South-East Asian Region.

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, India, incidence and prevalence


How to cite this article:
Prasanna Kumar KM. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in India. Indian J Endocr Metab 2015;19, Suppl S1:34-5

How to cite this URL:
Prasanna Kumar KM. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in India. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Aug 19];19, Suppl S1:34-5. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2015/19/7/34/155378


   Introduction Top


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common pediatric endocrine illnesses. Of these, over half are living in developing nations, with India being home to an estimated 97,700 children with T1DM. [1] Data were collected from hospital-based studies in 1990 from India suggest that young diabetics (onset of diabetes before the age of 15 years) constitute about 1%-4% of the total diabetic population. [2] India had reported a prevalence of juvenile diabetes (onset below 15 years) <1% to 3.61%, between 1964 and 1989. [3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10]

Type 1 diabetes mellitus accounts for only about 5%-10% of all cases of diabetes. The incidence of T1DM continues to increase worldwide, and it has serious short-term and long-term implications. The incidences of T1DM is rising by 3%/year and at present more than 90,000 children are affected in Europe alone. Nearly 75,000 new children are diagnosed to have T1DM every year. This increase in the incidence along with enhanced access to insulin and better survival rates will lead to a higher prevalence in the near future. No definite data are available in India and the country also lacks a diabetes registry.

A study of 30 children with insulin-dependent diabetes with age at diagnosis ≤15 years, conducted in 1992, reported a prevalence of 0.26/1000 children. The peak age at diagnosis was 12 years. This was the first population-based study of prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes in South India and shows that insulin-dependent diabetes is not rare and is higher than that reported from many other Asian countries. [11]

The Karnataka state T1DM registry listed an incidence of 3.7/100,000 in boys and 4.0/100,000 in girls over 13 years of data collection. [12] At Karnal, in Haryana, the prevalence of T1DM is 26.6/100,000 in urban and 4.27/100,000 in rural areas of the district, leading to an average prevalence of 10.20/100,000 population. Karnal city has a relatively high prevalence of T1DM (31.9/100,000). [13] More than one percent of Indian children are diabetic, according to a sample survey conducted by the government in schools in three cities. Under the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke, a study was conducted on 92,047 school children in Nainital (Uttarakhand), Ratlam (Madhya Pradesh), and Bhilwara (Rajasthan). According to this study, 1,351 (1.467%) students were suspected to be diabetic. An estimated 18,000 children under the age of 15 were newly diagnosed for T1DM in the year 2011 in the above-mentioned regions. The prevalence of T1DM in children is 1, 11, 500 according to a World Health Organization report of the International Diabetes Federation for the South-East Asian Region. India is one of the 11 countries mentioned in this report.


   Summary Top


The increase in the incidence along with enhanced access to insulin and better survival rates will lead to a higher prevalence in the near future.

 
   References Top

1.
Kumar KM, Azad K, Zabeen B, Kalra S. Type 1 diabetes in children: Fighting for a place under the sun. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16 Suppl 1:S1-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Menon P, Viramani A, Shah P, Raju R, Sethi A, Sethia S, et al. Childhood onset diabetes mellitus in India: An overview. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 1990;10:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Srikanta SS. Insulin "Dependent" diabetes mellitus in India: Classical versus atypical. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 1993;13:29-35.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Abraham A, Geevarghese P. Pattern of childhood diabetes in Central Kerala. Diabetes Bull 1989;9:1.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Vaishnava H, Bhasin RC, Gulati PD, Rao B, Rizvi SN, Verma NP, et al. Diabetes mellitus with onset under 40 years in North India. J Assoc Physicians India 1974;22:879-88.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Udani PM, Shah PM, Karani AN. Diabetes in children. Clinical and biochemical aspects. Indian Pediatr 1968;5:391-400.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Samal K, Das S, Tripathy B, Nayak G, Mishra P. Clinical and biochemical analysis of diabetes in pediatric age group. Diabetes Bull 1989;9:6-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Viswanathan M, Mohammed U, Krishnamoorthy M. Diabetes in the young - A study of 166 cases. In: Patel JC, Talwalkar NG, editors. Diabetes in the Tropics. Bombay: Diabetic Association of India; 1966. p. 277-81.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Ahuja M, Talwar G, Varma V, Kumar A. Diabetes mellitus in young Indians. Indian J Med Res 1965;53:1138.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Gupta O. Study of juvenile diabetes in Ahmedabad. J Assoc Physicians India 1964;12:89-94.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Abdul Khader OM, Joseph TA, Viswanathan M. Prevalence of childhood diabetes in an urban population in south India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1992;17:227-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Kumar P, Krishna P, Reddy SC, Gurappa M, Aravind SR, Munichoodappa C. Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated complications among children and young adults: Results from Karnataka Diabetes Registry 1995-2008. J Indian Med Assoc 2008;106:708-11.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Kalra S, Kalra B, Sharma A. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Karnal district, Haryana state, India. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2010;2:14.  Back to cited text no. 13
    



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