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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 254-267

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: Past, present, and future


1 Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India
2 Excel Care Hospitals, Guwahati, Assam, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 Department of Endocrinology, Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India
5 Eli Lilly and Company (India) Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, Haryana, India
6 Eli Lilly and Company, Basingstoke, RG24 9NL, UK

Correspondence Address:
Omolara Adetunji
Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly House, Priestley Road, Basingstoke, RG24 9NL
UK
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.176351

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)–based therapy improves glycaemic control through multiple mechanisms, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and the additional benefit of clinically relevant weight loss. Since Starling and Bayliss first proposed the existence of intestinal secretions that stimulate the pancreas, tremendous progress has been made in the area of incretins. As a number of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) continue to become available, physicians will soon face the challenge of selecting the right option customized to their patient's needs. The following discussion, derived from an extensive literature search using the PubMed database, applying the terms incretin, GLP-1, exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, and taspoglutide, provides a comprehensive review of existing and upcoming molecules in the GLP-1 RA class in terms of their structure, pharmacological profiles, efficacy, safety, and convenience. Search Methodology: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed database, applying the terms incretin, GLP-1, exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, lixisenatide, semaglutide, and taspoglutide. Relevant articles were those that discussed structural, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, classification, long-acting and short-acting GLP-1 RAs, phase 3 trials, and expert opinions. Additional targeted searches were conducted on diabetes treatment guidelines and reviews on safety, as well as the American Diabetes Association/European Society for Study of Diabetes (ADA/EASD) statement on pancreatic safety.


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