Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Advertise | Login 
 
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
  Users Online: 852 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size  

 
Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 546-551

Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?


1 North Delhi Diabetes Centre, New Delhi, India
2 Sri Balaji Action Medical Institute, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication3-Jun-2016

Correspondence Address:
Rajeev Chawla
North Delhi Diabetes Centre, Rohini, New Delhi - 110 085
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.183480

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Diabetes and related complications are associated with long-term damage and failure of various organ systems. The line of demarcation between the pathogenic mechanisms of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and differing responses to therapeutic interventions is blurred. Diabetes induces changes in the microvasculature, causing extracellular matrix protein synthesis, and capillary basement membrane thickening which are the pathognomic features of diabetic microangiopathy. These changes in conjunction with advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress, low grade inflammation, and neovascularization of vasa vasorum can lead to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycemia is the principal cause of microvasculopathy but also appears to play an important role in causation of macrovasculopathy. There is thought to be an intersection between micro and macro vascular complications, but the two disorders seem to be strongly interconnected, with micro vascular diseases promoting atherosclerosis through processes such as hypoxia and changes in vasa vasorum. It is thus imperative to understand whether microvascular complications distinctly precede macrovascular complications or do both of them progress simultaneously as a continuum. This will allow re-focusing on the clinical issues with a unifying perspective which can improve type 2 diabetes mellitus outcomes.

Keywords: Complications, diabetes, macrovascular, microvascular


How to cite this article:
Chawla A, Chawla R, Jaggi S. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?. Indian J Endocr Metab 2016;20:546-51

How to cite this URL:
Chawla A, Chawla R, Jaggi S. Microvasular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: Distinct or continuum?. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Nov 12];20:546-51. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2016/20/4/546/183480




   Introduction Top


Diabetes mellitus (DM) has routinely been described as a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that develops as a consequence of defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Type 2 diabetes encompasses individuals who have insulin resistance (IR) and usually relative (rather than absolute) insulin deficiency.[1] The pathologic hallmark of DM involves the vasculature leading to both microvascular and macrovascular complications.[2] Chronicity of hyperglycemia is associated with long-term damage and failure of various organ systems mainly affecting the eyes, nerves, kidneys, and the heart.[1]

According to diabetes atlas (7th edition), the global prevalence of diabetes is estimated at 415 million (8.8%), which is predicted to rise to 642 million in next 25 years.[3] In India, there are about 69.2 million people with diabetes and are expected to cross 123.5 million by 2040.[3] Moreover, worldwide approximately 193 million diabetics remain undiagnosed predisposing them to the development of several long-term complications of untreated chronic hyperglycemia.[3] Although intensive glycemic control lowers the incidence and progression of microvascular complications, the morbidity associated with these complications is still increasing.[4] Several landmark studies such as the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have demonstrated that strict glycemic control does limit microvascular disease while attempts to improve macrovascular outcomes through glucose-lowering interventions still remain shrouded with controversy. A relative risk (RR) reduction in myocardial infarction (MI) (P = 0.052) has been observed in the 10 years of posttrial follow-up of UKPDS.[5] Similarly, the risk of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal MI and stroke reduced with pioglitazone in the Prospective Pioglitazone Clinical Trial in Macrovascular Events as compared to placebo group.[6] The action in diabetes and vascular disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation and the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial failed to show any significant improvement in cardiovascular risk with the intensification of diabetes therapy.[7],[8] To further complicate matters, in Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes trial the use of intensive therapy for 3.5 years increased mortality but did not significantly reduce major cardiovascular events.[9]

In recent years, much attention has been focused on the management of macrovascular complications such as stroke and acute coronary syndromes. It is well-recognized that vascular complications in a given tissue are often accompanied by evidence of pathology in other vascular territories. A linear relationship between microvascular complications and duration of disease was established by the authors where they documented the presence of microvasculopathy across different age groups in their study in 25–40% of diabetic patients aged >25 years with more than 5 years duration of diabetes.[10] Researchers such as Krentz et al. and Al-Wakeel et al. have observed that both microvascular and macrovascular complications develop simultaneously in diabetes.[11],[12] On the contrary, Matheus and Gomes described the case report of type 1 DM (T1DM) patient with early and aggressive coronary artery disease (CAD) without evidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, or classical risk factors for CAD.[13] Thus, there is not much clarity over whether microvascular complication precedes macrovascular complications or they progress simultaneously.

The present review attempts an insight into this delicate relationship between microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes to understand whether they are discrete entities or in continuum with each other. We propose a unique continuum bridging the microvascular and the macrovascular risk which is based on our evidence-based studies consistently over a decade.


   Pathophysiological Basis of Micro Versus Macrovascular Complications Top


Patients with DM and associated microvascular complications appear particularly at higher risk of accelerated atherosclerosis which ultimately culminates in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and premature death.[14] Microvessels are the basic functional unit of the cardiovascular system comprising of arterioles, capillaries, and venules.[2] They differ from macrovessels in both their architecture and cellular components. In contrast to macrovessels supplying blood to organs, microvessels play important roles in maintaining blood pressure and proper nutrient delivery.[2] The microcirculation also has regulatory systems controlling vascular permeability and myogenic responses that can adapt blood flow according to local metabolic needs. Alteration in microvascular function may arise even before overt hyperglycemia and vascular pathologic changes manifest. Diabetes induces pathognomonic changes in the microvasculature, affecting the capillary basement membrane including arterioles in the glomeruli, retina, myocardium, skin, and muscle, by increasing their thickness, leading to the development of diabetic microangiopathy. This thickening eventually leads to abnormality in vessel function, inducing multiple clinical problems such as hypertension, delayed wound healing, and tissue hypoxia. Similarly, neovascularization arising from the vasa vasorum may interconnect macro-and microangiopathy, predict platelet rupture and promote atherosclerosis. The role of microvascular pathology in systemic diabetic complications, including macrovascular atherosclerosis, remains a subject for further debate.[2]


   Intersection of Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications of Diabetes: Evidence-Based Proof of Concept Top


Diabetic retinopathy

The risk of development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with (T2DM) has been found to be related to both severities of hyperglycemia and presence of hypertension. Fong et al. attributed approximately 10,000 new cases of blindness to DR in the United States.[15] In India, The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) reported an overall DR prevalence of 17.6% (confidence interval [95% CI]: 15.8–19.5) in the diabetic population.[16] More recently, the Sankara Nethralaya DR Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study has estimated an urban prevalence of 18.0% (95% CI: 16.0–20.1) and a rural prevalence of 10.3% (95% CI: 8.53–11.97%) of DR in South India.[17],[18] Similar to this, Aravind Comprehensive Eye Study has reported 10.5% prevalence of DR (in self-reported subjects with diabetes) in the rural South Indian population.[19] A DR prevalence of 21.2% has been reported by Chawla et al. in their cohort of North Indian patients. This study also found a significant association between HbA1c, body mass index, duration of diabetes and microalbuminuria in the development of DR (P = 0.001).[20]

Several studies have explored the association between DR and macrovascular complications. As retinal microvasculature shares embryologic and anatomic characteristics with that of cerebral circulation, researchers have studied retinal abnormalities to provide clues to understand the underlying pathophysiology of different cerebrovascular diseases.[21] In the World Health Organization Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes, retinopathy was related to the incidence of MI and death from cardiovascular disease (CVD).[22] In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, increased incidence of clinical stroke was associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities and generalized arteriolar narrowing.[23] Furthermore, retinopathy was significantly associated with combined stroke events (RR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0–2.8) in persons without diabetes after controlling for age, sex, and systolic blood pressure. This association was stronger in those with two or more retinal microvascular signs (RR 2.7, CI: 1.5–5.2).[24] Targher et al. followed up 2103 T2DM outpatients for 7 years and found a remarkably increased risk of incident CVD in patients with proliferative/laser-treated retinopathy (hazard ratio 2.08 [1.02–3.7] for men and 2.41 [1.05–3.9] for women), after adjustment of hypertension and advanced nephropathy.[25] Contrary to this, Matheus and Gomes has reported cardiovascular events without any presence of retinopathy.[13]

Diabetic nephropathy

Proteinuria occurs in 15–40% of patients with type 1 diabetes while it ranges from 5 to 20% in patients with T2DM.[26] According to the European Diabetes Prospective Complications Study, the cumulative incidence of microalbuminuria was 12.6% over 7.3 years in patients with T1DM.[26] However, 18 years follow-up study from Denmark reported a prevalence rate of 33% in the T1DM population.[27] Similarly, in the (UKPDS), T2DM patients showed a 2.0% incidence of microalbuminuria per year, which reached up to 25% in 10 years postdiagnosis.[28] The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was higher in African Americans, Asians, and Native Americans than Caucasians.[26] In India, CURES 45 reported a prevalence of 2.2% for overt diabetic nephropathy and 26.9% for microalbuminuria.[29]

The association of intense control to reduced microvascular complication, as reported by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, has emerged as a strong proof of concept for hyperglycemia being an important modifiable risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. A reduction in 10 mm Hg of systolic blood pressure is associated with a 13% decrease in the microvascular complications with minimal risk in patient with a systolic pressure <120 mm Hg.[30] Dyslipidemia with increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides is independently associated with diabetic kidney disease.[31]

The pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetic nephropathy involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accumulation of advanced glycation end product (AGE), and activation of intracellular signaling molecules such as protein kinase C (PKC).[32],[33] A strong association between diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy was demonstrated by Arora et al. in 2004–2005 in 50 newly diagnosed patients with diabetes.[34] The direct association between the presence of microalbuminuria and macrovascular complications has also been well-established in many studies.[35] In an observational study, Hägg et al(2013). reported the increased incidence of both cerebral infarction and cerebral hemorrhage in patients with severe DR (SDR) and advanced diabetic nephropathy in 4083 patients with T1DM with 36,680 person-years of follow-up. Both nephropathy and SDR were found to be independently increasing the risk for all subtypes of stroke.[36] The increased incidence of stroke in diabetic nephropathy has also been reiterated in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study, where overt nephropathy increases the risk of ischemic stroke 4.4-fold (but not the risk for hemorrhagic stroke, probably due to the insufficient number of samples).[36] Retinopathy and macroalbuminuria produce higher rates of cardiovascular events among Chinese patients.[37]

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy, a life-threatening complication involves both peripheral and autonomic nerves, affecting almost half of the diabetic population.[38] The risk of development of diabetic neuropathy is directly proportional to both the duration and magnitude of hyperglycemia. In addition, some individuals may also possess genetic facets that influence their predisposition in developing such complications.[35] The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy varies from country to country. In India, a high prevalence (29.2%) of diabetic peripheral neuropathy was reported among the North Indian population.[39] Further studies in North Indian region (Lucknow) and North-eastern region (Imphal) revealed a prevalence of 29.2% and 29.0%, respectively, among newly diagnosed diabetic patients (duration <6 months).[40],[41] Chawla et al. reported the prevalence of 15.3% in their study involving 720 North Indian patients from New Delhi.[20]

Although the precise nature of the injury to the peripheral nerves from hyperglycemia is not yet certain, the mechanisms of hyperglycemia-induced polyol pathway, injury from AGEs, and enhanced oxidative stress have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The damage to peripheral nerves may be mediated by effects on nerve tissue or by endothelial injury or vascular dysfunction.[2] Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes appears in several forms depending on the site, manifesting as sensory, focal/multifocal, and autonomic neuropathies. Diabetic neuropathy has resulted in more than 80% amputations after foot ulceration or injury.[35]

A study conducted by Miguel et al. demonstrated a significant correlation between diabetic neuropathy and the existence of one or more macrovascular complications showing that diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy presented with significantly higher rates of cardiac events and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) than diabetic patients without neuropathy. Strokes were also numerically higher in the neuropathy group.[42] Chawla et al. in 2011–2012 demonstrated an association between diabetic neuropathy and development of DR and microalbuminuria in 855 patients.[43] Diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy have been found to have a strong co-association with DR (22% vs. 14.3%), diabetic neuropathy (14% vs. 6.8%), and poor glycemic control.

Hence, it is recommended to evaluate autonomic nervous system function at the time of T2DM diagnosis and annually thereafter.[44] Chawla et al. established a positive correlation between autonomic neuropathy and peripheral neuropathy (P = 0.00014); however, the further association between autonomic neuropathy and PVD failed to reach statistical significance.[45] In addition, a direct relationship of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) with T2DM was also documented by Chawla et al. They found symptoms of peripheral vascular insufficiency or weak peripheral vessels in 13.8% of patients with foot Doppler confirmed the prevalence of LEAD in 7.4% of patients.[46] The authors validated and advocate the use of neuropathy symptoms score and neuropathy disability score in the clinical and bedside diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy.[47]


   Common Pathways for Development of Both Micro and Macrovascular Complications Top


Advanced glycation products

AGEs are a heterogeneous group of molecules formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of plasma proteins causing a disruption in their normal functioning by altering their molecular conformation, disrupting enzyme activity, and interfering with receptor functioning. AGEs accumulate in different types of cells and affect their extracellular and intracellular structure and function by cross-linking not only with proteins but also lipids and nucleic acids contributing to a variety of diabetic complications.[48] AGEs crosslink with plasma membrane-localized receptors for AGEs (RAGE) leading to up-regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB and its target genes, release of pro-inflammatory molecules and free radicals. Soluble AGEs activate monocytes, and AGEs in the basement membrane inhibit monocyte migration. AGE-bound RAGE increases endothelial permeability to macromolecules. AGEs block nitric oxide activity in the endothelium and cause the production of ROS.[49]

Further, AGEs modify LDL particles and together with vascular damage accelerate atherosclerosis.[50] Kalousová et al. found significant elevation of AGE in patients with T2DM as compared to both healthy (5.11 ± 1.15 × 103 AU/g vs. 4.08 ± 0.71 × 103 AU/g, P < 0.001) as well as T1DM patients (4.14 ± 0.86 × 103 AU/g, P < 0.005).[51] Kilhovd et al. demonstrated a significant increase in the levels of AGEs in patients with T2DM compared with nondiabetic control subjects (7.4 [4.4–10.9] vs. 4.2 [1.6–6.4] U/ml, P < 0.0001). Besides, they also found elevated levels of AGE in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) than those of without CHD (8.1 [6.4–10.9] vs. 7.1 [3.5–9.8] U/ml, P = 0.03) in patients with T2DM.[52]

Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress, caused by the overproduction of ROS plays an important role in the activation of other pathogenic pathways involved in diabetic complications, including elevated polyol pathway activity, nonenzymatic glycation, and PKC levels which in turn lead to the development of micro-and macrovascular complications.[53] It also inactivates two critical anti-atherosclerotic enzymes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and prostacyclin synthase.[54] Hyperglycemia promotes the formation of ROS, which interacts with both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins, causing cellular damage, especially targeting mitochondrial DNA. A study on the human retinal endothelial cell (EC) demonstrated very early mitochondrial DNA damage with hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of ROS.[55] ROS-mediated cellular damage may be a form of pathologic “memory” in the microvasculature that persists even after glucose normalization. Several experimental evidences point to mitochondrial superoxide overproduction as the major culprit in the development of metabolic abnormalities in diabetics.[56] IR induces mitochondrial ROS production from free fatty acids and inhibits anti-atherosclerotic enzymes causing atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in T2DM patients. In subjects without diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, those in the highest quintile of IR had a 2.0-fold increase in CVD risk compared to those in the lowest quintile after adjusting several known cardiovascular risk factors, including LDL, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, and smoking.[57]

The other pathways implicated in diabetic complications such as AGE formation, PKC activation, increased polyol flux, and hexosamine formation are also linked to oxidative stress in promoting macrovascular complications through multiple mechanisms. Increased glucose concentrations can activate nuclear factor-κB, a key mediator that regulates multiple pro-inflammatory and pro-atherosclerotic target genes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), ECs, and macrophages.[55] Hyperglycemia itself stimulates oxidative stress, which indeed acts as a driving force in accelerated atherosclerosis.

Low-grade inflammation

Inflammation has been recognized as one of the potent risk factors in both atherosclerosis and T2DM. Vascular cells encounter many early pathologic changes in response to hyperglycemia, causing a loss of nonadhesive property and adhesion of monocyte to ECs, which is an early step in atherogenesis. Hyperglycemia has been reported to provoke monocyte adhesion to arterial ECs.[58] The association between hyperglycemia and AGEs with oxidative stress is manifested as both can stimulate EC production of superoxide [Figure 1]. Glucose also activates matrix-degrading enzyme metalloproteinase which causes plaque rupture and arterial remodeling as well as VSMC proliferation, migration and altered activity. The role of increased level of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the development of IR is well-documented. IR itself has inflammatory action as described above. The levels of several other inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor I, and interleukine-6 have been shown to increase with the onset of diabetes. Monocyte activation has been documented in the presence of high glucose with induction of inflammatory mediators such as PKC and nuclear factor-κB promoting oxidative stress.[59]
Figure 1: Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia drive the atherosclerotic process

Click here to view


Neovascularization of vasa vasorum

The proliferation of vasa vasorum is associated with increased plaque burden, which subsequently promotes atherosclerosis.[60] Many cellular processes such as inflammation, plaque perfusion and concomitant intra-plaque hemorrhage are critical during the development of atherosclerotic plaques and are linked with vasa vasorum proliferation. Neovascularization develops by the growth from both adventitial layer (outward) and arterial lumen (inward) toward the intima.[61] In T2DM, plaque rupture is associated with increased angiogenesis, and diabetic atherosclerosis is further accelerated by neovasculature microangiopathy.[62] The initial angiogenic response in the adventitial vasa vasorum, an important component of homeostatic mechanisms, appears to be stimulated by hypoxia through identification of increased hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action.[63]

VEGF, a multifunctional cytokine, also contributes to microvascular complications by increasing the vascular permeability to macromolecules, monocyte chemotaxis, and tissue factor production.[64] Up-regulation of VEGF is also reported in experimental diabetic kidney disease models. However, contrary to this, VEGF treatment has been shown to restore microcirculation in the vasa nervorum and limit diabetic neuropathy as demonstrated by rodent VEGF gene transfer experiment.[2] In the eye, a neurotropic factor-pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) may offset VEGF action by its potent angiogenic inhibition.[65] PEDF level is decreased in proliferative DR, whereas VEGF levels are increased. Decreased PEDF levels may also likely contribute to diabetic nephropathy. Other growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor may foster proliferative retinopathy.[66]


   Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications-Continuum or Separate: The Debate Continues Top
[Figure 2]
Figure 2: The diabetes continuum

Click here to view


Heart involvement in diabetes may not be only a macrovascular disease where there is Orchestra of contributing factors to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy concerning fatty acid and glucose complex structural macrovascular derangements such as hypertrophy and loss of function due to glycation but also a microvascular involvement following “common soil” hypothesis of diabetes complications. Atherosclerosis in large arteries as well as cardiomyopathy in diabetes a microvascular component may go hand in hand.[67]

Therefore, changes in small arteries and capillaries are not responsible for only microvascular long-term complications in patients with diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) but also for other manifestations of heart disease in diabetes.

This review highlights the need for implementing programs for early detection, screening, and awareness to mitigate the burden of managing the complications.

Good blood glucose control improves microvascular disease and should be implemented early and maintained for the optimum length of time. Appropriate controls of blood pressure as well as dyslipidemia are extremely important in macrovascular disease prevention besides glycemic control. Patients with microvascular complications appear particularly prone to accelerated atherosclerosis and premature death. Neovascularization arising from the vasa vasorum may interconnect macro-and microangiopathy.

A clearer picture on differing responses to therapeutic interventions could lead to better management and improve T2DM outcomes not only regarding microvascular but also macrovascular complications as well. Further systematic research on the above interlinking hypothesis will help us get more clarity whether microvascular complications precede macrovascular complications or they are two ends of the same spectrum of disease existing in continuum.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Standards of medical care in diabetes-2016: Summary of revisions. Diabetes Care 2016;39 Suppl 1:S4-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Orasanu G, Plutzky J. The pathologic continuum of diabetic vascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53 5 Suppl:S35-42.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
International Diabetes Federation. IDF Atlas. 7th edition. Available from: http://www.diabetesatlas.org. [Last accessed on 2015 Dec 27].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
ADVANCE Collaborative Group, Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, Neal B, Billot L, et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2560-72.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1577-89.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Charbonnel B, Dormandy J, Erdmann E, Massi-Benedetti M, Skene A; PROactive Study Group. The prospective pioglitazone clinical trial in macrovascular events (PROactive): Can pioglitazone reduce cardiovascular events in diabetes? Study design and baseline characteristics of 5238 patients. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1647-53.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, Reda D, Emanuele N, Reaven PD, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009;360:129-39.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Patel A, Chalmers J, Poulter N. ADVANCE: Action in diabetes and vascular disease. J Hum Hypertens 2005;19 Suppl 1:S27-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr., Bigger JT, et al. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2545-59.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Chawla A, Chawla R, Bhasin GK, Soota K. Profile of adolescent diabetics in North Indian population. J Clin Diabetol 2014;1:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Krentz AJ, Clough G, Byrne CD. Interactions between microvascular and macrovascular disease in diabetes: Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications. Diabetes Obes Metab 2007;9:781-91.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Al-Wakeel JS, Hammad D, Al Suwaida A, Mitwalli AH, Memon NA, Sulimani F. Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic nephropathy patients referred to nephrology clinic. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2009;20:77-85.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
13.
Matheus AS, Gomes MB. Early aggressive macrovascular disease and type 1 diabetes mellitus without chronic complications: A case report. BMC Res Notes 2013;6:222.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Kalofoutis C, Piperi C, Kalofoutis A, Harris F, Phoenix D, Singh J. Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factors: Current therapeutic approaches. Exp Clin Cardiol 2007;12:17-28.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Fong DS, Aiello LP, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein R. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2540-53.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Rema M, Premkumar S, Anitha B, Deepa R, Pradeepa R, Mohan V. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in urban India: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) eye study, I. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:2328-33.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Raman R, Rani PK, Reddi Rachepalle S, Gnanamoorthy P, Uthra S, Kumaramanickavel G, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in India: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study report 2. Ophthalmology 2009;116:311-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Raman R, Ganesan S, Pal SS, Kulothungan V, Sharma T. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in rural India. Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study III (SN-DREAMS III), report no 2. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2014;2:e000005.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Nirmalan PK, Tielsch JM, Katz J, Thulasiraj RD, Krishnadas R, Ramakrishnan R, et al. Relationship between vision impairment and eye disease to vision-specific quality of life and function in rural India: The Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:2308-12.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Chawla A, Chawla R, Chawla A. Correlation Between Retinopathy Microalbuminuria and Other Modifiable Risk Factors. Presented on American Diabetes Association's 75th Scientific Session; June 5-9; Boston, Massachusetts; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Wong TY, Klein R, Couper DJ, Cooper LS, Shahar E, Hubbard LD, et al. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and incident stroke: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Lancet 2001;358:1134-40.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Fuller JH, Stevens LK, Wang SL. Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity: The WHO mutinational study of vascular disease in diabetes. Diabetologia 2001;44 Suppl 2:S54-64.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Yatsuya H, Folsom AR, Wong TY, Klein R, Klein BE, Sharrett AR; ARIC Study Investigators. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and risk of lacunar stroke: Atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Stroke 2010;41:1349-55.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Wong TY, Smith W, Klein R, Leeder SR. Retinal microvascular signs and risk of stroke and stroke mortality. Neurology 2005;65:1005-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Targher G, Bertolini L, Zenari L, Lippi G, Pichiri I, Zoppini G, et al. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2008;25:45-50.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Gross JL, de Azevedo MJ, Silveiro SP, Canani LH, Caramori ML, Zelmanovitz T. Diabetic nephropathy: Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Diabetes Care 2005;28:164-76.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Soedamah-Muthu SS, Chaturvedi N, Witte DR, Stevens LK, Porta M, Fuller JH; EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group. Relationship between risk factors and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients in Europe: The EURODIAB prospective complications study (PCS). Diabetes Care 2008;31:1360-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Hovind P, Tarnow L, Rossing P, Jensen BR, Graae M, Torp I, et al. Predictors for the development of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes: Inception cohort study. BMJ 2004;328:1105.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Adler AI, Stevens RJ, Manley SE, Bilous RW, Cull CA, Holman RR; UKPDS Group. Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: The United Kingdom prospective diabetes study (UKPDS 64). Kidney Int 2003;63:225-32.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Unnikrishnan RI, Rema M, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, Shanthirani CS, Deepa R, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetic nephropathy in an urban South Indian population: The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES 45). Diabetes Care 2007;30:2019-24.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): Prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321:412-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Trevisan R, Dodesini AR, Lepore G. Lipids and renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17 4 Suppl 2:S145-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Cade WT. Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting. Phys Ther 2008;88:1322-35.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Arora GS, Chawla R, Ahuja CP. To Evaluate the Clinical Profile and Determine the Prevalence of Complications in Newly Detected Type-2 Diabetes Patients. Presented on Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India's (RSSDI) 33rd Annual Conference; September 23rd-25th, Bangalore; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Fowler MJ. Microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2008;26:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Hägg S, Thorn LM, Putaala J, Liebkind R, Harjutsalo V, Forsblom CM, et al. Incidence of stroke according to presence of diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36:4140-6.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Lloyd CE, Klein R, Maser RE, Kuller LH, Becker DJ, Orchard TJ. The progression of retinopathy over 2 years: The Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complications (EDC) study. J Diabetes Complications 1995;9:140-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Tong PC, Kong AP, So WY, Ng MH, Yang X, Ng MC, et al. Hematocrit, independent of chronic kidney disease, predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes in chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:2439-44.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Tapp R and Shaw J. Epidemiology of diabetic neuropathy. In: Tesdaye S, Boulton A, eds. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Bansal D, Gudala K, Muthyala H, Esam HP, Nayakallu R, Bhansali A. Prevalence and risk factors of development of peripheral diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care setting. J Diabetes Investig 2014;5:714-21.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Dutta A, Naorem S, Singh TP, Wangjam K. Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2005;25:30-3.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Miguel GA, Fernández EG, Rodríguez JCR, Pablos DL, Díaz-Guerra GM, Hawkins FG. Association Between Peripheral Neuropathy and Macrovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients. Presented at Endocrine Society's 97th Annual Meeting and Expo, March 5-8; San Diego; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Chawla R, Rathore P, editor. To Study the Prevalence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy by Biothesiometric Evaluation & It's Co-association with Other Complications 2004(NNDU Proceedings 2004); 2004.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Chawla R, Poddar A, Chawla R. High Prevalence of CAN in New Onset T-2 Diabetes Patients. Presented on American Diabetes Association's 68th Scientific Session; June 8; San Francisco, CA; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Chawla R, Gupta S, Punyani H. Correlation Between Autonomic Neuropathy and Distal Peripheral Neuropathy and Its Co-association with Peripheral Vascular Disease in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Presented on American Diabetes Association's 70th Scientific Session; June 25; Orlando, FL, USA; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Chawla R, Rathore P. Evaluation of Lower Extremity Arterial Disease (LEAD/PVD) in Type-2 Diabetics and Its Co-association with Other Macro Vascular Complications. Presented on Annual Conference of Diabetic Foot Society of India's Scientific Session; September 4-5; Bhopal, India; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Chawla A, Bhasin GK, Chawla R. Validation of neuropathy symptoms score (NSS) and neuropathy disability score (NDS) in the clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy in middle aged people with diabetes. Internet J Fam Pract 2013;12:1.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Singh VP, Bali A, Singh N, Jaggi AS. Advanced glycation end products and diabetic complications. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2014;18:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Schmidt AM, Hori O, Brett J, Yan SD, Wautier JL, Stern D. Cellular receptors for advanced glycation end products. Implications for induction of oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular lesions. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14:1521-8.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Goldin A, Beckman JA, Schmidt AM, Creager MA. Advanced glycation end products: Sparking the development of diabetic vascular injury. Circulation 2006;114:597-605.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Kalousová M, Skrha J, Zima T. Advanced glycation end-products and advanced oxidation protein products in patients with diabetes mellitus. Physiol Res 2002;51:597-604.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Kilhovd BK, Berg TJ, Birkeland KI, Thorsby P, Hanssen KF. Serum levels of advanced glycation end products are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Diabetes Care 1999;22:1543-8.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Jakus V, Rietbrock N. Advanced glycation end-products and the progress of diabetic vascular complications. Physiol Res 2004;53:131-42.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Folli F, Corradi D, Fanti P, Davalli A, Paez A, Giaccari A, et al. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus micro- and macrovascular complications: Avenues for a mechanistic-based therapeutic approach. Curr Diabetes Rev 2011;7:313-24.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Giacco F, Brownlee M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res 2010;107:1058-70.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Xie L, Zhu X, Hu Y, Li T, Gao Y, Shi Y, et al. Mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage triggering mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in high glucose-induced HRECs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008;49:4203-9.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Duncan JG. Mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011;1813:1351-9.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Syed Ikmal SI, Zaman Huri H, Vethakkan SR, Wan Ahmad WA. Potential biomarkers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease. Int J Endocrinol 2013;2013:698567.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Otsuka A, Azuma K, Iesaki T, Sato F, Hirose T, Shimizu T, et al. Temporary hyperglycaemia provokes monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in rat thoracic aorta. Diabetologia 2005;48:2667-74.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Tian J, Hu S, Sun Y, Yu H, Han X, Cheng W, et al. Vasa vasorum and plaque progression, and responses to atorvastatin in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and intravascular ultrasound study. Heart 2013;99:48-54.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Hayden MR, Tyagi SC. Vasa vasorum in plaque angiogenesis, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: A malignant transformation. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2004;3:1.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Patel A. Does the role of angiogenesis play a role in atherosclerosis and plaque instability. Anat Physiol 2014;4:147.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Xu J, Lu X, Shi GP. Vasa vasorum in atherosclerosis and clinical significance. Int J Mol Sci 2015;16:11574-608.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Bonnefond A, Saulnier PJ, Stathopoulou MG, Grarup N, Ndiaye NC, Roussel R, et al. What is the contribution of two genetic variants regulating VEGF levels to type 2 diabetes risk and to microvascular complications? PLoS One 2013;8:e55921.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Schratzberger P, Walter DH, Rittig K, Bahlmann FH, Pola R, Curry C, et al. Reversal of experimental diabetic neuropathy by VEGF gene transfer. J Clin Invest 2001;107:1083-92.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Gao G, Li Y, Zhang D, Gee S, Crosson C, Ma J. Unbalanced expression of VEGF and PEDF in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. FEBS Lett 2001;489:270-6.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Laakso M. Heart in diabetes: A microvascular disease. Diabetes Care 2011;34 Suppl 2:S145-9.  Back to cited text no. 67
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Dietary antioxidant for disease prevention corroborated by the Nrf2 pathway
Amany M. Hegazy,Eman M. El-Sayed,Khadiga S. Ibrahim,Amal S. Abdel-Azeem
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 2019; 16(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Adherence, Persistence, and Switching Among People Prescribed Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study
Richard Ofori-Asenso,Danny Liew,Samanta Lalic,Mohsen Mazidi,Dianna J. Magliano,Zanfina Ademi,J. Simon Bell,Jenni Ilomaki
Advances in Therapy. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Novel Hybrids of Pyrazolidinedione and Benzothiazole as TZD Analogues. Rationale Design, Synthesis and In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Evaluation
Michelyne Haroun
Medicinal Chemistry. 2019; 15(6): 624
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 A Roadmap on the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among People Living With Diabetes
Sharon Mitchell,Belma Malanda,Albertino Damasceno,Robert H. Eckel,Dan Gaita,Kornelia Kotseva,James L. Januzzi,George Mensah,Jorge Plutzky,Maksym Prystupiuk,Lars Ryden,Jorge Thierer,Salim S. Virani,Laurence Sperling
Global Heart. 2019; 14(3): 215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Flavonoids and Their Anti-Diabetic Effects: Cellular Mechanisms and Effects to Improve Blood Sugar Levels
Asma AL-Ishaq,Asma Abotaleb,Asma Kubatka,Asma Kajo,Asma Büsselberg
Biomolecules. 2019; 9(9): 430
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Acute cardiovascular complications in patients with diabetes and hypertension: management consideration for minor oral surgery
Ajinath Nanasaheb Jadhav,Pooja Raosaheb Tarte
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2019; 45(4): 207
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Myricetin ameliorates high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
Azadeh Aminzadeh,Hamideh Bashiri
Cell Biochemistry and Function. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 VEGF-A and cardiac autonomic function in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care center
Suresh Ravichandran,Shival Srivastav,PrathameshHaridas Kamble,Shailja Chambial,Ravindra Shukla,Praveen Sharma,RajeshKumar Sharma
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2019; 8(10): 3185
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 The major molecular mechanisms mediating the renoprotective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors: An update
Habib Yaribeygi,Luis E. Simental-Mendía,Maciej Banach,Simona Bo,Amirhossein Sahebkar
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2019; 120: 109526
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Drug-Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Diabetic Rats
Asma Boarescu,Asma Boarescu,Asma Boc?an,Asma Gheban,Asma Bulboaca,Asma Nicula,Asma Pop,Asma Râjnoveanu,Asma Bolboaca
Antioxidants. 2019; 8(10): 504
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Diabetic Vascular Damage: Review of Pathogenesis and Possible Evaluation Technologies
Sergej Sosunkevic,Andrius Rapalis,Mindaugas Marozas,Jonas Ceponis,Arunas Lukosevicius
IEEE Access. 2019; 7: 148511
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Automatically Extracting Disease-Disease Association from Literature with a Large Margin Context-Aware Convolutional Neural Network (Preprint)
Po-Ting Lai,Wei-Liang Lu,Ting-Rung Kuo,Chia-Ru Chung,Jen-Chieh Han,Richard Tzong-Han Tsai,Jorng-Tzong Horng
JMIR Medical Informatics. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Effects of Turmeric ( Curcuma longa) Extract in streptozocin-induced diabetic model
Rana Essa,Ahmed M. El Sadek,Marine E. Baset,Mohamed A. Rawash,Diana G. Sami,Marwa T. Badawy,Maha E. Mansour,Hamdino Attia,Mona K. Saadeldin,Ahmed Abdellatif
Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Kruppel-Like Transcription Factor-4 Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Status in Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy Patients
Zeynep Mine Coskun,Melike Ersoz,Mine Adas,Veysel Sabri Hancer,Serife Nur Boysan,Mustafa Sait Gonen,Aynur Acar
Archives of Medical Research. 2019; 50(3): 91
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Use of Dapagliflozin in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Real-World Evidence Study in Indian Patients (FOREFRONT)
Vijay Viswanathan,K.P. Singh
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics. 2019; 21(8): 415
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Higher Levels of ANGPTL5 in the Circulation of Subjects With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Are Associated With Insulin Resistance
Ghazi Alghanim,Mohamed G. Qaddoumi,Nouf Alhasawi,Preethi Cherian,Irina Al-Khairi,Rasheeba Nizam,Fadi Alkayal,Muath Alanbaei,Jaakko Tuomilehto,Jehad Abubaker,Mohamed Abu-Farha,Fahd Al-Mulla
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2019; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Dysregulated expression of long noncoding RNAs serves as diagnostic biomarkers of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Weiyue Zhang,Juan Zheng,Xiang Hu,Lulu Chen
Endocrine. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 DPP-4 Inhibitors: Renoprotective Potential and Pharmacokinetics in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Renal Impairment
Momir Mikov,Nebojša Pavlovic,Bojan Stanimirov,Maja Đanic,Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon,Karmen Stankov,Hani Al-Salami
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Estimation of Aldose Reductase Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sandeep Kumar,Ajay Kumar,Mohammad Mustufa Khan
Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2019; 12(2): 1001
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 The Role of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP)-1B in Cardiovascular Disease and Its Interplay with Insulin Resistance
Amirhossein Abdelsalam,Amirhossein Korashy,Amirhossein Zeidan,Amirhossein Agouni
Biomolecules. 2019; 9(7): 286
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Molecular Concept of Diabetic Wound Healing: Effective Role of Herbal Remedies
Amro Mohamed Soliman,Seong Lin Teoh,Norzana Abd Ghafar,Srijit Das
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 2019; 19(5): 381
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Long noncoding RNA: an emerging player in diabetes and diabetic kidney disease
Jia Guo,Zhangsuo Liu,Rujun Gong
Clinical Science. 2019; 133(12): 1321
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The Impact of a Community-Based Food Education Program on Nutrition-Related Knowledge in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Carlos Vasconcelos,António Almeida,Maria Cabral,Elisabete Ramos,Romeu Mendes
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(13): 2403
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 From Table to Stable: A Comparative Review of Selected Aspects of Human and Equine Metabolic Syndrome
Valentina M. Ragno,Gordon A. Zello,Colby D. Klein,Julia B. Montgomery
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2019; 79: 131
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 A systematic review on the mechanisms of vitamin K effects on the complications of diabetes and pre-diabetes
Nahid Karamzad,Vahid Maleki,Kristin Carson-Chahhoud,Samaneh Azizi,Amirhossein Sahebkar,Bahram Pourghassem Gargari
BioFactors. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Is it necessary to screen patient with adhesive capsulitis of shoulder for diabetes mellitus?
SK Rai,Manoj Kashid,Barun Chakrabarty,Vimal Upreti,Omna Shaki
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2019; 8(9): 2927
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Effects of Moringa oleifera on oxidative stress, apoptotic and inflammatory biomarkers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animal model
O.O. Oguntibeju,G.Y. Aboua,E.I. Omodanisi
South African Journal of Botany. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Association of 18bp insertion/deletion polymorphism, at -2549 position of VEGF gene, with diabetic vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Agnieszka Gala-Bladzinska,Joanna Czech,Marcin Braun,Marzena Skrzypa,Krzysztof Gargasz,Artur Mazur,Izabela Zawlik
Advances in Medical Sciences. 2019; 64(1): 137
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Critical Molecular Driver of Endothelial Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disturbances Associated with Diabetes
Hatem Maamoun,Shahenda Abdelsalam,Asad Zeidan,Hesham Korashy,Abdelali Agouni
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(7): 1658
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Established coronary artery disease in systemic sclerosis compared to type 2 diabetic female patients: a cross-sectional study
Michele Colaci,Dilia Giuggioli,Amelia Spinella,Caterina Vacchi,Federica Lumetti,Anna Vittoria Mattioli,Francesca Coppi,Vincenzo Aiello,Maria Perticone,Lorenzo Malatino,Clodoveo Ferri
Clinical Rheumatology. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Economic Impact of Diabetes in Africa
Clarisse Mapa-Tassou,Jean-Claude Katte,Camille Mba Maadjhou,Jean Claude Mbanya
Current Diabetes Reports. 2019; 19(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in type 1 diabetic children, relation to vascular complications
Eman Mounir Sherif,Abeer Ahmed Abd El Maksood,Omneya Ibrahim Youssef,Nouran Yousef Salah El-Din,Ola Khaled Mohamed Khater
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Effects of Allium tuncelianum on oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin
Gözde Atilla,Ali Bilgili,Hamit Uslu,Dinçer Erdag,Oktay Özkan
Ankara Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Popular functional foods and herbs for the management of type-2-diabetes mellitus: A comprehensive review with special reference to clinical trials and its proposed mechanism
Kamesh Venkatakrishnan,Hui-Fang Chiu,Chin-Kun Wang
Journal of Functional Foods. 2019; 57: 425
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Dietary patterns and management of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials
D. Papamichou,D.B. Panagiotakos,C. Itsiopoulos
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Foot Kinetic and Kinematic Profile in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Peripheral Neuropathy
Animesh Hazari,Arun G. Maiya,K.N. Shivashankara
Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 2019; 109(1): 36
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Improved quality of diabetes control reduces complication costs in Bulgaria
Konstantin Tachkov,Konstantin Mitov,Zornitsa Mitkova,Maria Kamusheva,Maria Dimitrova,Valentina Petkova,Alexandra Savova,Miglena Doneva,Dimitar Tcarukciev,Vasil Valov,Galia Angelova,Manoela Manova,Guenka Petrova
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2019; 33(1): 814
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Purine metabolites can indicate diabetes progression
Yogaraje Gowda C. Varadaiah,Senthilkumar Sivanesan,Shivananda B. Nayak,Kashinath R. Thirumalarao
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 The Burden of Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus in Adult African Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Daniel Asmelash,Yemane Asmelash
Journal of Diabetes Research. 2019; 2019: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 A therapeutic approach towards microRNA29 family in vascular diabetic complications: A boon or curse?
Aishwarya P. Dasare,Piyush Gondaliya,Akshay Srivastava,Kiran Kalia
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Therapeutic experience of saxagliptin as first add-on after metformin in Indian type 2 diabetes patients: A non-interventional, prospective, observational study (ONTARGET-INDIA)
Sanjay Kalra,Sarita Bajaj,AG Unnikrishnan,ManashP Baruah,Rakesh Sahay,V Hardik,Amit Kumar
Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2019; 23(3): 312
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Effect of amodiaquine on the pharmacokinetics of gliclazide in diabetic subjects
Godwin Ishaku Sambo,Taibat Bakare-Odunola Mojirade,Musa Aminu,Adamu Yakasai Ibrahim,Garba Magaji,Adzu Bulus
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2019; 13(11): 139
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Macro- and micro-vascular complications and their determinants among people with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh
Afsana Afroz,Wen Zhang,Andre Jin Wei Loh,Darryl Xing Jie Lee,Baki Billah
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Diabetic foot – invalidating complication of diabetes mellitus
Oana Manuela Spalatelu,Sergiu Chirila,Leonard Gurgas,Vasile Sârbu
Medic.ro. 2019; 129 (3)(1): 40
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese patent medicine Jinqi Jiangtang Tablet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Huijuan Gao,Yingxi Yang,Jianqing Deng,Jiaqi Liang,Weihua Zhang,Xingzhong Feng
Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 The prevalence of macro and microvascular complications of DM among patients in Ethiopia 1990–2017: Systematic review
Bayu Begashaw Bekele
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019; 13(1): 672
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 The association between near-infrared spectroscopy-derived and flow-mediated dilation assessment of vascular responsiveness in the arm
Rogerio N. Soares,Yasina B. Somani,David N. Proctor,Juan M. Murias
Microvascular Research. 2019; 122: 41
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Promising effects of ß-glucans on glyceamic control in diabetes
Rukiye Bozbulut,Nevin Sanlier
Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2019; 83: 159
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Targeted screening for prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in a community setting in India
Thirunavukkarasu Sathish,Jonathan Shaw,Robyn J. Tapp,Rory Wolfe,Kavumpurathu R. Thankappan,Sajitha Balachandran,Brian Oldenburg
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Pharmacist-led interventional programs for diabetic patients in Arab countries: A systematic review study
Ehab Mudher Mikhael,Mohamed Azmi Hassali,Saad Abdulrahman Hussain,Ahmed Ibrahim Nouri,Nizar Shawky
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Mechanisms Involved in Glycemic Control Promoted by Exercise in Diabetics
Eric Francelino Andrade,Víviam de Oliveira Silva,Débora Ribeiro Orlando,Luciano José Pereira
Current Diabetes Reviews. 2019; 15(2): 105
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Aqueous leaf extract of Clinacanthus nutans improved metabolic indices and sorbitol-related complications in type II diabetic rats (T2D)
Mustapha Umar Imam,Maznah Ismail,Annie George,Sasikala M. Chinnappan,Ashril Yusof
Food Science & Nutrition. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Randomized Controlled Trial of Physical Exercise in Diabetic Veterans With Length-Dependent Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy
Evan B. Stubbs,Morris A. Fisher,Clara M. Miller,Christine Jelinek,Jolene Butler,Conor McBurney,Eileen G. Collins
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2019; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Relationship between Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Level and Microvascular Complications in Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis
Jing Liu,Caiying Li,Wen Chen,Kuanrong He,Huijuan Ma,Boqing Ma,Pei Zhao,Lu Tian
BioMed Research International. 2019; 2019: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Increased Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes–Related Complications in Combined Type 2 Diabetes and Sickle Cell Trait
Sarah C. Skinner,Mor Diaw,Vincent Pialoux,Maďmouna Ndour Mbaye,Pauline Mury,Philomčne Lopez,Delphine Bousquet,Fatou Gueye,Demba Diedhiou,Philippe Joly,Céline Renoux,Djiby Sow,Saliou Diop,Brigitte Ranque,Agnčs Vinet,Abdoulaye Samb,Nicolas Guillot,Philippe Connes
Diabetes Care. 2018; 41(12): 2595
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Enhanced calcium entry via activation of NOX/PKC underlies increased vasoconstriction induced by methylglyoxal
Basma G. Eid,Alaa T. Abu-Sharib,Hany M. El-Bassossy,Khadijah Balamash,Sergey V. Smirnov
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Neuroprotective Effect of Hydroxytyrosol in Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy: Relationship with Cardiovascular Biomarkers
José Antonio González-Correa,María Dolores Rodríguez-Pérez,Lucía Márquez-Estrada,Juan Antonio López-Villodres,José Julio Reyes,Guillermo Rodriguez-Gutierrez,Juan Fernández-Bolańos,José Pedro De La Cruz
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2018; 66(3): 637
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Association of carotid intima-media thickness with exercise tolerance test in type 2 diabetic patients
Ali Momeni,Abdolmajid Taheri,Maryam Mansuri,Ali Bazdar,Morteza Sedehi,Masoud Amiri
IJC Heart & Vasculature. 2018; 21: 74
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Association of ACE2 polymorphisms with susceptibility to essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Xinjiang, China
Yizhi Pan,Tianyi Wang,Yanfang Li,Tianwang Guan,Yanxian Lai,Yan Shen,Abudurexiti Zeyaweiding,Tutiguli Maimaiti,Fang Li,Haiyan Zhao,Cheng Liu
Lipids in Health and Disease. 2018; 17(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and inflammation in chronic kidney disease: Possible molecular pathways
Habib Yaribeygi,Alexandra E. Butler,Stephen L. Atkin,Niki Katsiki,Amirhossein Sahebkar
Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Personal Health Coaching as a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Self-Management Strategy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Meysam Pirbaglou,Joel Katz,Mehras Motamed,Sarah Pludwinski,Krista Walker,Paul Ritvo
American Journal of Health Promotion. 2018; 32(7): 1613
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Agonist-Biased Signaling via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodeling
Bessi Qorri,Regina-Veronicka Kalaydina,Aleksandra Velickovic,Yekaterina Kaplya,Alexandria Decarlo,Myron Szewczuk
Cells. 2018; 7(9): 117
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Topical Application of Adelmidrol + Trans-Traumatic Acid Enhances Skin Wound Healing in a Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mouse Model
Rosalba Siracusa,Daniela Impellizzeri,Marika Cordaro,Enrico Gugliandolo,Alessio F. Peritore,Rosanna Di Paola,Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2018; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Prevention of Vascular Complications in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Focus on the Arterial Wall
Mojca Lunder,Miodrag Janic,Mišo Šabovic
Current Vascular Pharmacology. 2018; 17(1): 6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 A new indanedione derivative alleviates symptoms of diabetes by modulating RAGE-NF-kappaB pathway in db/db mice
Gulnaz Khan,Meha Fatima Aftab,Bilquees Bano,Khalid Mohammed Khan,Munazza Murtaza,Sonia Siddiqui,M.Hafizur Rehman,Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Downregulation of long non-coding RNAs LINC00523 and LINC00994 in type 2 diabetes in an Iranian cohort
Zahra Mansoori,Hamid Ghaedi,Mirsaber Sadatamini,Rouhollah Vahabpour,Ali Rahimipour,Mehrnoosh Shanaki,Leyla saeidi,Faranak Kazerouni
Molecular Biology Reports. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Investigation of effects of neurotrophic factors on painful diabetic neuropathy: an experimental study
Faruk Kilinç,Ramis Çolak,Mete Özcan,Ahmet Ayar
The European Research Journal. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 The Saudi Diabetic Kidney Disease study (Saudi-DKD): clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters
Khalid Al-Rubeaan,Khalid Siddiqui,Mohammed A. Al-Ghonaim,Amira M. Youssef,Dhekra AlNaqeeb
Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2018; 38(1): 46
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Glycerol dehydration of native and diabetic animal tissues studied by THz-TDS and NMR methods
O. A. Smolyanskaya,I. J. Schelkanova,M. S. Kulya,E. L. Odlyanitskiy,I. S. Goryachev,A. N. Tcypkin,Ya. V. Grachev,Ya. G. Toropova,V. V. Tuchin
Biomedical Optics Express. 2018; 9(3): 1198
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Inhibition of macrophage inflammatory protein-1ß improves endothelial progenitor cell function and ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetes
Ting-Ting Chang,Liang-Yu Lin,Jaw-Wen Chen
Angiogenesis. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Diabetes Mellitus Associates with Increased Right Ventricular Afterload and Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Morgan E. Whitaker,Vineet Nair,Shripad Sinari,Parinita Dherange,Balaji Natarajan,Lindsey Trutter,Evan L. Brittain,Anna R. Hemnes,Eric Austin,Kumar Patel,Stephen M. Black,Joe G.N. Garcia,Jason X. Yuan,Rebecca Vanderpool,Franz Rischard,Ayako Makino,Edward J. Bedrick,Ankit A. Desai
The American Journal of Medicine. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Potential of traditionally consumed medicinal herbs, spices, and food plants to inhibit key digestive enzymes geared towards diabetes mellitus management — A systematic review
A.D. Seetaloo,M.Z. Aumeeruddy,R.R. Rengasamy Kannan,M.F. Mahomoodally
South African Journal of Botany. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Newer Antidiabetic Drugs Approved from 2013 to 2017 in Controlling HbA1c in Diabetes Patients
Sivanandy Palanisamy,Emily Yien,Ling Shi,Low Si,See Qi,Laura Ling,Teng Lun,Yap Chen
Pharmacy. 2018; 6(3): 57
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Importance and Potential of Dentists in Identifying Patients at High Risk of Diabetes
Siddardha G. Chandrupatla,Ranadheer Ramachandra,Satyanarayana Dantala,Krishnappa Pushpanjali,Mary Tavares
Current Diabetes Reviews. 2018; 15(1): 67
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Circulating matrix modulators (MMP-9 and TIMP-1) and their association with severity of diabetic retinopathy
Kuppuswami Jayashree,Md. Yasir,Gandhipuram Periyasamy Senthilkumar,K Ramesh Babu,Vadivelan Mehalingam,Palani Selvam Mohanraj
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 Effects of High Glucose on the Expression of LAMA1 and Biological Behavior of Choroid Retinal Endothelial Cells
Guangwei Song,Da Lin,Licheng Bao,Qi Jiang,Yinan Zhang,Haihua Zheng,Qianying Gao
Journal of Diabetes Research. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 ACE2 polymorphisms associated with cardiovascular risk in Uygurs with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Cheng Liu,Yanfang Li,Tianwang Guan,Yanxian Lai,Yan Shen,Abudurexiti Zeyaweiding,Haiyan Zhao,Fang Li,Tutiguli Maimaiti
Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2018; 17(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 BMP9 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9)/Alk1 (Activin-Like Kinase Receptor Type I) Signaling Prevents Hyperglycemia-Induced Vascular Permeability
Naoufal Akla,Claire Viallard,Natalija Popovic,Cindy Lora Gil,Przemyslaw Sapieha,Bruno Larrivée
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2018; 38(8): 1821
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Heat-Shock Protein 70: Is it a New Target Pathway for Diabetic Vasculopathies?
Amanda Almeida de Oliveira,R. Clinton Webb,Kenia Pedrosa Nunes
Current Drug Targets. 2018; 20(1): 51
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 The impact of diabetes on treatment in general dental practice
Vinson Yeung,Joht Chandan
Dental Update. 2018; 45(2): 120
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Chemotherapeutic-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction: Physiological Effects, Early Detection—The Role of Telomerase to Counteract Mitochondrial Defects and Oxidative Stress
Nabeel Quryshi,Laura Norwood Toro,Karima Ait-Aissa,Amanda Kong,Andreas Beyer
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(3): 797
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 The Big Entity of New RNA World: Long Non-Coding RNAs in Microvascular Complications of Diabetes
Satish K. Raut,Madhu Khullar
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2018; 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Synthesis of newly functionalized 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and their effects on wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice
Silvia Helena Cardoso,Cleidijane Rodrigues de Oliveira,Ari Souza Guimarăes,Jadiely Nascimento,Julianderson de Oliveira dos Santos Carmo,Jamylle Nunes de Souza Ferro,Ana Carolina de Carvalho Correia,Emiliano Barreto
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2018; 291: 55
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 Metabolic Parameters, Weight Loss, and Comorbidities 4 Years After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy
Corey J. Lager,Nazanene H. Esfandiari,Yingying Luo,Angela R. Subauste,Andrew T. Kraftson,Morton B. Brown,Oliver A. Varban,Rasimcan Meral,Ruth B. Cassidy,Catherine K. Nay,Amy L. Lockwood,Darlene Bellers,Colleen M. Buda,Elif A. Oral
Obesity Surgery. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 There is a positive association between vitamin B12 deficiency and serum total cholesterol in Iranian type 2 diabetic patients on Metformin
Mitra Niafar,Golnaz Samadi,Naser Aghamohammadzadeh,Farzad Najafipour,Zeinab Nikniaz
Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 The effect of change in fasting glucose on the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality: a nationwide cohort study
Gyeongsil Lee,Sung Min Kim,Seulggie Choi,Kyuwoong Kim,Su-Min Jeong,Joung Sik Son,Jae-Moon Yun,Sang Min Park
Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2018; 17(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
María Isabel del Olmo-Garcia,Juan Francisco Merino-Torres
Journal of Diabetes Research. 2018; 2018: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Beetle (Ulomoides dermestoides) fat improves diabetes: effect on liver and pancreatic architecture and on PPAR? expression
E.I. Jasso-Villagomez,M. Garcia-Lorenzana,J.C. Almanza-Perez,M.A. Fortis-Barrera,G. Blancas-Flores,R. Roman-Ramos,L.A. Prado-Barragan,F.J. Alarcon-Aguilar
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2018; 51(6)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Altered expression of WFS1 and NOTCH2 genes associated with diabetic nephropathy in T2DM patients
Sahar A. Sharaf,Nagwa A. Kantoush,Dina F. Ayoub,Alshaymaa A. Ibrahim,Amaal A. Abdelaal,Rokaya Abdel Aziz,Mahmoud M. ElHefnawi,Amira N. Ahmed
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2018; 140: 304
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Endothelin-1 Regulation Is Entangled in a Complex Web of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Diabetes
S. BISWAS,B. FENG,A. THOMAS,S. CHEN,E. AREF-ESHGHI,B. SADIKOVIC,S. CHAKRABARTI
Physiological Research. 2018; : S115
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Patient reported experience of blood glucose management when undergoing hyperbaric oxygen treatment
Carol Baines,Geraldine O’Rourke,Charne Miller,Karen Ford,William McGuiness
Collegian. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 A review of the anti-inflammatory properties of antidiabetic agents providing protective effects against vascular complications in diabetes
Habib Yaribeygi,Stephen L. Atkin,Matteo Pirro,Amirhossein Sahebkar
Journal of Cellular Physiology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Glycaemic indices and haemoglobin A1c as predictors for non-healing ulcers
Kevin J. Moore,Erin C. Dunn,Erin N. Marcus,Tulay Koru-Sengul
Journal of Wound Care. 2018; 27(Sup4): S6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Danhong Huayu Koufuye Prevents Diabetic Retinopathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats via Antioxidation and Anti-Inflammation
Wenpei Chen,Xiaolan Yao,Chenghao Zhou,Ziyang Zhang,Gang Gui,Baoqin Lin
Mediators of Inflammation. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 Mitochondrial miRNAs in diabetes: just the tip of the iceberg
Rohini Baradan,John M. Hollander,Samarjit Das
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Pancreatic Elastography From Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Evaluation of Diabetic Microangiopathy
Yu He,Hui Wang,Xiao Ping Li,Juan-Juan Zheng,Chun-Xiang Jin
American Journal of Roentgenology. 2017; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Targeting Obesity and Diabetes to Treat Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
Raffaele Altara,Mauro Giordano,Einar S. Nordén,Alessandro Cataliotti,Mazen Kurdi,Saeed N. Bajestani,George W. Booz
Frontiers in Endocrinology. 2017; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Expression of JAZF1, ABCC8, KCNJ11and Notch2 genes and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes, and their association with microvascular complications
Maha A. Rasheed,Nagwa Kantoush,Nagwa Abd El-Ghaffar,Hebatallah Farouk,Solaf Kamel,Alshaymaa Ahmed Ibrahim,Aliaa Shalaby,Eman Mahmoud,Hala M. Raslan,Omneya M. Saleh
Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2017; 8(6): 97
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Long-term efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors as add-on to metformin treatment in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Jian Li,Yanping Gong,Chunlin Li,Yanhui Lu,Yu Liu,Yinghong Shao
Medicine. 2017; 96(27): e7201
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 MicroRNA and Diabetic Complications- a clinical perspective
Baoqi Fan,Andrea On Yan Luk,Juliana C.N. Chan,Ronald Ching Wan Ma
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
101 Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) Scan
Shivank Prakash,Ravi. S. Jatti,Shridhar C. Ghagane,S.M. Jali,M.V. Jali
International Journal of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders. 2017; 10(2): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
102 Renoprotective Effects of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin: A Review in Type 2 Diabetes
Cristina Mega,Edite Teixeira-de-Lemos,Rosa Fernandes,Flávio Reis
Journal of Diabetes Research. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 Novel insights into DNA methylation and its critical implications in diabetic vascular complications
Jia Zheng,Jing Cheng,Qian Zhang,Xinhua Xiao
Bioscience Reports. 2017; 37(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Restoration of Impaired Metabolic Energy Balance (ATP Pool) and Tube Formation Potential of Endothelial Cells under “high glucose”, Diabetic Conditions by the Bioinorganic Polymer Polyphosphate
Xiaohong Wang,Maximilian Ackermann,Meik Neufurth,Shunfeng Wang,Qiang Li,Qingling Feng,Heinz Schröder,Werner Müller
Polymers. 2017; 9(11): 575
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
105 Serum vaspin concentration in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and macrovascular complications
Wei Yang,Yun Li,Tian Tian,Li Wang,Pearl Lee,Qi Hua
BMC Endocrine Disorders. 2017; 17(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
106 Epigenetics in diabetic nephropathy, immunity and metabolism
Samuel T. Keating,Janna A. van Diepen,Niels P. Riksen,Assam El-Osta
Diabetologia. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
107 Role of protein carbonylation in diabetes
Markus Hecker,Andreas H. Wagner
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
108 Reduced serum milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) concentrations are associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes
Guohua Sun,Juxiang Liu,Guanghao Xia,Lijuan Zhang,Yonghong Li,Zubang Zhou,Yaya LV,Suhong Wei,Jing Liu,Jinxing Quan
Clinica Chimica Acta. 2017; 466: 201
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 mediates hyperglycaemia-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation in endothelial cells
Yuan Zhang,Yuan Qu,Tian Niu,Haiyan Wang,Kun Liu
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2017; 484(1): 79
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Dynamics of Diabetes and Obesity: Epidemiological Perspective
Annette Boles,Ramesh Kandimalla,P. Hemachandra Reddy
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111 Incidence of complications in young-onset diabetes: Comparing type 2 with type 1 (the young diab study)
Anandakumar Amutha,Ranjit Mohan Anjana,Ulagamathesan Venkatesan,Harish Ranjani,Ranjit Unnikrishnan,K.M. Venkat Narayan,Viswanathan Mohan,Mohammed K. Ali
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2017; 123: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
112 Analysis of inflammatory cytokine and TLR expression levels in Type 2 Diabetes with complications
Saket Gupta,Ashwini Maratha,Jakub Siednienko,Anandan Natarajan,Thusitha Gajanayake,Shu Hoashi,Sinéad Miggin
Scientific Reports. 2017; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
113 Significance of cardiac and iron profile alteration in diabetic patients
Nabil A. Hasona
Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Abstract Pathophysiologic... Intersection of ... Common Pathways ... Introduction Microvascular an... Article Figures
  In this article
 References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed13047    
    Printed54    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded2851    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 113    

Recommend this journal