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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 137-141

Clinical and epidemiological study of stress hyperglycemia among medical intensive care unit patients in Central India

1 Department of Medicine, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Independent Statistician and Medical Writer, MS Pharmacology and Toxicology, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sachin Chittawar
114/1 Jain Nagar, Lalghati, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.196011

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Background: Stress hyperglycemia is common in patients presenting at the emergency medical ward and is associated with poor prognosis and increased risk of mortality. Aims and Objective: To study and determine the prevalence and factors associated with stress hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed on 536 nondiabetic patients presented to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at Gandhi Medical College and allied Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, between March 31, 2015, and May 28, 2015. A detailed history including demographic profile, presence of chronic disease, history of hospitalization and ICU admission, surgical status, and major reason for ICU admission (i.e., predominant diagnostic category) was collected. Hematological and other parameters based on profile of study population were also analyzed. Results: Out of 536 patients, 109 (20.33%) had stress hyperglycemia. Out of 109 patients with stress hyperglycemia, 87 (16.23%) patients had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <5.7% and 22 (4.10%) patients had HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. Mean age of the study population was 40.27 ± 1.44 years, with male dominance. Mean random blood glucose level was 181.46 ± 3.80 mg/dl. Frequency of stress hyperglycemia was 24.13% in stroke, 19.54% in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), 17.24% in chronic kidney disease (CKD), 12.64% in central nervous system (CNS) infection, 8.05% in chronic liver disease (CLD), and 8.05% in seizure patients. Association between stroke and stress hyperglycemia was significant (P = 0.036). Association between hospital stay more than 7 days and stress hyperglycemia was significant in stroke patients (P = 0.0029), CKD patients (P = 0.0036), CLD (P = 0.0099), and MODS patients (P = 0.0328). Conclusions: The factors associated with stress hyperglycemia were stroke, MODS, CKD, CNS infection, CLD, seizure patients, with prolonged hospital stay and expected proportion.

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