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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 443-452

An audit of insulin usage and insulin injection practices in a large Indian cohort


1 Consultant Endocrinologist, Excel Care Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 Cosultant Endocrinologist, Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India
3 Scientific Advisor, Biocon Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Diabetic Counselor, Excel Care Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India

Correspondence Address:
Manash P Baruah
Excel Centre (Unit of Excel Care Hospital), Ulubari, Barthakur Mill Road, Guwahati - 781 007, Assam
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_548_16

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Introduction: Insulin remains the cornerstone of therapy in a substantial number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inadequate knowledge regarding insulin usage is likely to influence its acceptance and adherence, and outcome of therapy, underscoring great need to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practice of insulin usage in patients with T2DM. Methodology: A cross-sectional registry-based retrospective study analyzed data collected from 748 respondents (male: 466, female: 282), mostly from high or middle economic status, who were enrolled as outpatient in a referral clinic during last 10 years (2006–2016), to assess the general characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes and their baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice of insulin usage and injection practices. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of duration of diabetes was 12.24 ± 7.60 years and mean ± SD duration of insulin therapy was 3.42 ± 4.18 years, which was initiated after a mean ± SD diabetes duration of 8.80 ± 6.42 years. Mean insulin dose per kilogram of body weight/day was 0.51 ± 0.27 units. Total daily dose of insulin was 33.36 ± 18.44 units and number of injections/day (mean ± SD) was 2.06 ± 0.73. Among the respondents, 58.96% were on human insulin and 35.70% were on analog insulin. Pen devices were used by 66.08% of the population whereas 31.76% used insulin syringes. The prevalence of lipohypertrophy (LH) was 12.57%, which was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with wrong technique with regard to injection angle (10.45% vs. 23.02%), site of injection (7.00% vs. 30.51%), rotation of site of injection (0.88% vs. 17.66%), and reuse of needle (5.77% vs. 15.19%). LH was also significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the use of human (14.74%) compared to analog insulin (8.24%). Conclusion: The current study highlights the unique patterns of insulin usage and associated high prevalence of LH among insulin users in India.


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