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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 684-687

Metabolic status and hypogonadism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected males


1 Department of Medicine, Motilal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 ART Centre, Swaroop Rani Nehru Hospital, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Yashaswi Pathak
Department of Medicine, Motilal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_127_17

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Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hypogonadism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males and to study its relation to age, CD4 count, body mass index (BMI), duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and metabolic status. Methodology: Eighty-one HIV positive cases and 82 healthy controls were included in this case–control study. Each case underwent a complete physical examination and serum fasting plasma glucose, A1c, lipid profile, total testosterone (TT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were estimated. Serum TT level <300 ng/dl, or TT >300 ng/dl with high LH and FSH (compensatory hypogonadism) were taken as markers for hypogonadism, and it was correlated with age, CD4 count, duration of HAART, and metabolic status of the patient. Results: Out of 81 cases, 21 (25.9%) were found to have hypogonadism as compared to 4 (4.9%) out of 82 controls. Of these 21, 14 cases had secondary hypogonadism, five had primary, and the remaining two had compensatory hypogonadism. The mean serum TT value among cases (371.7 ± 102.9 ng/dl) was significantly lower than that among controls (419.7 ± 71.5 ng/dl) (P = 0.007). Hypogonadism was found to be significantly associated with the age of the patient (P = 0.007), CD4 count (P = 0.002), and duration of HAART (P = 0.04) and was independent of the BMI (P = 0.9) and the waist circumference (P = 0.8). Dyslipidemia and dysglycemia were significantly more common among cases as compared to controls (P < 0.05) but were not associated with hypogonadism. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypogonadism is higher among HIV-infected males as compared to healthy individuals. Hypogonadism was significantly associated with age, CD4 count, and duration of HAART and was independent of BMI, glycemic status, and dyslipidemia.


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