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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 122-127

Role of procalcitonin as a predictor of clinical outcome in acute diabetic foot infections: A prospective study


1 Department of Endocrinology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Endocrinology and Podiatry, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Aster Medcity Hospital, Kochi, Kerala, India
4 Department of Podiatry, Aster Medcity Hospital, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Adlyne R Asirvatham
Flat B Bougainvillea Terrace, No: 9 Officer's Colony 1st Street, Anna Nagar West Extension, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 101
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_525_18

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Background: Prediction of outcome in diabetic foot infection (DFI) remains difficult due to lack of active signs of infection, and apparently normal white blood cell (WBC) count. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been studied previously in this regard and were not useful. Hence, we evaluated procalcitonin (PCT) as a prognostic marker in this study. Objectives: We aimed to study the role of PCT, CRP, and ESR levels in predicting clinical outcome of acute DFI. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 subjects (197 men, 53 women) with acute DFI were enrolled. WBC count, ESR, CRP, and PCT were done for all subjects at admission after obtaining informed consent. Subjects were managed according to hospital protocol and followed up for 1 month. Clinical outcome was assessed based on mobility and morbidity status of the subject. Results: Old age, anemia, hyponatremia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated serum creatinine were risk factors for poor outcome. Presence of cardiac failure, diabetic retinopathy, peripheral vascular disease, previous amputations, and positive bone culture had negative influence on clinical outcome. Elevated WBC count, ESR, CRP, and serum PCT were significantly associated with bad outcome. Elevated PCT (>2 ng/ml) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)), 2.03 (1.13–5.19), P < 0.001], gangrene [OR (95% CI), 2.2 (1.02–4.73), P = 0.04], and sepsis [OR (95% CI), 10.101 (4.34–23.25), P < 0.001] were good predictors of clinical outcome in acute DFI. Conclusion: PCT proved to be a reliable marker of acute DFI and good predictor of clinical outcome than existing markers WBC count, ESR, and CRP. Hence it should be useful for clinicians while managing acute DFI.


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