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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 140-149

Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor: Benefits beyond glycemic control


1 Department of Endocrinology, Excel Centre, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 Dr. Makkar's Diabetes and Obesity Centre, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Kles Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and MRC, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Medical Affairs, AstraZeneca Pharma India Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Manash Pratim Baruah
Department of Endocrinology, Excel Center, Maya Ville, Barthakur Mill Road, Ulubari, Guwahati - 781 007, Assam
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_160_17

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a family of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia as a consequence of abnormalities in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. It affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and leads to increased morbidity, compromised quality of life, higher mortality sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs, have garnered considerable attention in the recent past and are considered potential first-line candidates for the management of T2DM. This review outlines the evidence-based therapeutic efficacy, safety, limitations, and advantages of SGLT2 inhibitors in the management of T2DM. SGLT2 inhibitors work by preventing the kidneys from reabsorbing glucose back into the blood, leading to increase in excretion of glucose through urine, thereby lowering hyperglycemia. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors improves A1C levels, reduces blood pressure and body weight, and is overall well tolerated by patients with T2DM. However, additional data on long-term cardiovascular safety are still needed. Characteristic adverse events include mild genital - urinary tract infection more commonly seen in women than in men, but serious infection is uncommon. Their use should be exercised with extra caution in patients suffering from renal impairment. Further, advancing to dual/triple combinational therapies with SGLT2 inhibitors and existing oral antidiabetic options may prove to be a breakthrough in the management of T2DM.


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