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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-26

Coexistence of autoimmune disorders and type 1 diabetes mellitus in children: An observation from Western Part of India


Department of Endocrinology, SMS Medical College and Hospitals, JLN Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Balram Sharma
SMS Medical College and Hospitals, JLN Road, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_103_18

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Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with various autoimmune disorders like celiac disease, thyroid disorder, adrenal failure, etc. However, how common is this association in Indian children is not clearly known. Objective: To assess the prevalence of other coexisting autoimmune disorders in children with T1DM. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients requiring insulin and ketosis-prone diabetic and with history of diabetic ketoacidosis/undetectable fasting C-peptide levels were included. Beside demographic and clinical data, detailed biochemistry evaluations were performed. Celiac disease was diagnosed as per the ESPGHAN diagnostic criteria. ACTH stimulation test was done to confirm the adrenal insufficiency in patients with basal serum cortisol <5 μg/dL. Thyroid function test (TSH) and anti-TPO antibody were assessed in all patients. Screening for other autoimmune disorders was done only when clinically indicated or symptoms or family history was suggestive of presence of such disorder. Results: Among 150 patients enrolled, 64.66% were males and mean age was 13.48 ± 3.29 years (range 3–18 years). Mean age at diagnosis of T1DM was 10.0 ± 3.63 years and duration of diabetes was 3.46 ± 3.18 years. The prevalence of antibodies positive against autoimmune diseases was anti-tTG IgA (20.7%), anti-TPO (33.7%), anti-CCP ab (1.3%), and ANA (0.7%). Significantly higher proportion of females had raised anti-TPO antibodies than males (47.2% vs. 25.8%, P = 0.006). Celiac disease was most common association (24.8%) followed by hypothyroidism (14.1%) and Grave's disease (3.3%). Significantly higher proportion of females had hypothyroidism than males (25.0% vs. 8.2%, respectively, P = 0.005). Prevalence of raised anti-tTG and anti-TPO did not differ significantly by the age (P = 0.841 and P = 0.067) or duration of T1DM (P = 0.493 and P = 0.399). Conclusion: In this part of country, celiac disease, hypothyroidism, and Graves's disease are common associations in children with T1DM.


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