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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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May-June 2017
Volume 21 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 365-487

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EDITORIALS  

Responsible patient-centered care p. 365
Sanjay Kalra, Manash P Baruah, AG Unnikrishnan
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_543_16  
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Diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D: Recommendations from India and Brazil p. 367
Cresio Alves
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.205485  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Does time of sampling or food intake alter thyroid function test? p. 369
Shriraam Mahadevan, Dhalapathy Sadacharan, Subramanian Kannan, Anita Suryanarayanan
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_15_17  
Context: A common question from most patients or laboratories is whether blood sample for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 (fT4) needs to be collected in a fasting state and whether time of the day when sample is collected matters. Aims: The aim of the study was to study the impact of the time of day and food intake on levels of TSH and fT4. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional prospective data collection. Subjects and Methods: We prospectively collected data from 52 volunteers who were not known to have any thyroid disorder and were not on any thyroid-related medication. Blood samples for TSH and fT4 were collected on day 1 at 8 am and 10 am with the patient remaining in the fasting state till the collection of the second sample at 10 am. On day 2, samples were collected at 8 am (fasting state) and at 10 am (2 h postprandial state). In 22 volunteers from the group, the tests were performed in three common assay techniques including chemiluminescent assays (chemiluminescent immunoassay [CLIA] and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay [CMIA]) and enzyme-linked fluorescence assay. Results: The mean (standard deviation) and median (interquartile range) TSH during the extended fast on day 1 were 2.26 ± 1.23 and 2.19 (1.21–3.18), which was significantly lower than the fasting TSH performed on day 1 (P < 0.001). Similarly, the values of TSH 2 h postmeal on day 2 of the testing (mean 1.93 ± 1.12; median 1.64 [1.06–2.86]) were significantly lower than TSH performed in the fasting state on day 2 (P < 0.001). The mean fT4 value was 1.01 ± 0.15 with median of 0.99 (0.91–1.11) in the fasting state and there was no significant difference between the fT4 values performed during fasting, extended fasting, and postmeal state. Among the volunteers in whom the test was performed in the three different assay techniques, the TSH was not statistically different either in the fasting (P = 0.801), extended fasting (P = 0.955), and postprandial samples (P = 0.989). The fT4 values did not vary significantly when done by the same assay method. However, the fT4 levels varied significantly (P < 0.001) when done by another assay method. Conclusions: We conclude stating that the timing of the test affects TSH values and this should be factored in making decisions in diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism.
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Primary healthcare-based diabetes registry in Puducherry: Design and methods p. 373
Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Rajeev Gupta, Denis Xavier, S Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_296_16  
Background: Diabetes registries monitor the population prevalence and incidence of diabetes, monitor diabetes control program, provide information of quality of care to health service providers, and provide a sampling frame for interventional studies. This study documents the process of establishing a prospective diabetes registry in a primary health-care setting in Puducherry. Methods: This is a facility-based prospective registry conducted in six randomly selected urban health centers in Puducherry, with enrollment of all known patients with diabetes attending chronic disease clinics. Administrative approvals were obtained from Government Health Services. Manuals for training of medical officers, health-care workers, and case report forms were developed. Diabetes registry was prepared using Epi Info software. Results: In the first phase, demographic characteristics, risk factors, complications, coexisting chronic conditions, lifestyle and medical management, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Around 2177 patients with diabetes have been registered in six Primary Health Centres out of a total of 2948 participants seeking care from chronic disease clinic. Registration coverage ranges from 61% to 105% in these centers. Conclusion: This study has documented methodological details, and learning experiences gained while developing a diabetes registry at the primary health care level and the scope for upscaling to a Management Information System for Diabetes and a State-wide Registry. Improvement in patient care through needs assessment and quality assurance in service delivery is an important theme envisioned by this registry.
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Growth hormone treatment in Turner's syndrome: A real world experience p. 378
Vijay Sheker Reddy Danda, P Sreedevi, G Arun, P Srinivas Rao
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_36_17  
Objective: Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS). Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH) on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. Methods: This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. The data such as height, weight, and bone age of 16 patients who are diagnosed with TS on GH therapy for at least 6 months were included in the study. All the patients were treated with human recombinant GH at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 12.7 years. The mean height at the start of GH therapy was 1.26 m, and mean height standard deviation score (HSDS) was-0.61 when compared to Turner's specific reference data. With a mean duration of GH therapy of 25 months, the mean height at the end of therapy was 1.37 m and the mean height as per HSDS was + 0.37 resulting in a mean height gain of + 0.99 HSDS. Conclusion: Our observation shows that girls with TS benefit from early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with GH.
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Impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose log reliability on long-term glycemic outcomes in children with type 1 diabetes Highly accessed article p. 382
Chitra Selvan, Anubhav Thukral, Deep Dutta, Sujoy Ghosh, Subhankar Chowdhury
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_342_16  
Introduction: Logbooks of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are useful in the modulation of insulin regimens, which aid in achieving glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, discrepancies in SMBG charting may impede its utility. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of log entries and its impact on long-term glycemic control. Methods: SMBG in logbooks was compared with readings in glucometer memory and discrepancies between the two were evaluated in 101 children with T1DM. The relationship between these discrepancies and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) over 44 months was assessed. Results: Errors in glucose charting were observed in 32.67% children. The most common observed error was omission (42.42%), followed by fabrication (27.27%), erroneous (18.18%), and others (12.12%). Age was not significantly different among children having accurate versus inaccurate SMBG logs. During follow-up of 44 months, children with accurate SMBG logs consistently had lower HbA1c as compared to children having inaccurate logs, which was statistically significant at 4, 16, 20, and 28 months' follow-up. The same was reflected in the proportion of children achieving HbA1c <7% and 7%–9%. Of the 14 children who had omissions, 9 had omission of high values only, 3 patients had omission of low values only, 1 had omission of both high and low values, and 1 had omission of normal values. Among logs with fabrication, parents were responsible in 2 of 9 incidents. In the remaining 7, it was the child himself/herself. Children with fabrication consistently had the highest HbA1c values among the different types of inaccurate blood glucose chartings, which was statistically significant at 32 and 36 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Reliability of SMBG logs is a significant problem among children with T1DM at our center. Children with accurate logs of SMBG readings were more likely to have better glycemic control on long-term follow-up.
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Study of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio as novel marker for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes Highly accessed article p. 387
Sagar Ashokrao Khandare, Sachin Chittawar, Nitin Nahar, TN Dubey, Zahraan Qureshi
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_476_16  
Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of diabetes. DN is clinically manifested as an increase in urine albumin excretion. Total white blood cell count is a crude but sensitive indicator of inflammation and studied in many cardiac and noncardiac diseases as an inflammatory marker such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. In this study, the association of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with DN is studied. Patients and Methods: It is an observational cross-sectional study. Totally 115 diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were registered in this study. NLR was calculated by analyzing differential leukocyte count in complete blood picture. Albuminuria was tested by MICRAL-II TEST strips by dipstick method. Results: Totally 115 diabetic patients were registered. About 56 patients had DN and 59 had normal urine albumin. Mean NLR for a normal group is 1.94 ± 0.65 and in DN group is 2.83 ± 0.85 which was highly significant (P < 0.001). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.047) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (P < 0.001) were also significant. Conclusion: The results of our study show that there was a significant relation between NLR and DN. Therefore, NLR may be considered as a novel surrogate marker of DN in early stages.
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Randomized control trial assessing impact of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile in Indian Vitamin D deficient men p. 393
Vivek G Patwardhan, Zulf M Mughal, Raja Padidela, Shashi A Chiplonkar, Vaman V Khadilkar, Anuradha V Khadilkar
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_9_1  
Background: Despite abundance of sunshine in India, Vitamin D deficiency is common and therefore there is an increasing trend toward taking Vitamin D supplements either as prescription medicine or as a nutritional supplement. Studies have suggested that duration of sun exposure may influence serum lipid profile. Objectives: To study the effect of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on Vitamin D status and lipid profile in individuals with Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25OHD] <50 nmol/L). Design: A prospective, randomized open-label trial was carried out in apparently healthy Indian men (40–60 years). Based on 25OHD concentrations, individuals were divided into control (>50 nmol/L, n = 50) and intervention (<50 nmol/L, n = 100) groups. Individuals from intervention group were randomly allocated to two groups; either “increased sunlight exposure group” (n = 50, received at least 20 min sunlight exposure to forearms and face between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. over and above their current exposure) or “cholecalciferol supplement group” (n = 50, received oral cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day). Results: Significant increase in 25OHD concentrations was seen in both intervention groups (P < 0.01). Significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was seen in individuals with increased sunlight exposure (P < 0.05). Cholecalciferol supplement group showed a significant increase in TC and HDL-C (P < 0.05) and insignificant increase in LDL-C. Conclusions: Increase in Vitamin D concentrations through sunlight exposure significantly reduced TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations, and cholecalciferol supplementation increased TC and HDL-C concentrations.
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Comparison of 18F-Fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography and four-dimensional computed tomography in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas-initial results p. 399
Sameer K Taywade, Nishikant A Damle, Abhishek Behera, K Devasenathipathy, Chandrasekhar Bal, Madhavi Tripathi, Shipra Agarwal, Nikhil Tandon, Sunil Chumber, V Seenu
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_536_16  
Objective: We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-Fluorocholine (FCH)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and four-dimensional (4D)- CT in detection and localization of eutopic and ectopic parathyroid adenoma (PA) in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Materials and Methods: Five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism underwent FCH-PET/CT after 60 min of 185 MBq of intravenous 18F-FCH administration. Images were acquired from head to mediastinum at 3 min per bed position. No intravenous contrast was used. All patients underwent 4D-CT within 2 weeks of the FCH-PET/CT, with a precontrast, post contrast arterial, and venous phase with 75 ml intravenous Iohexol 350 followed by 25 ml saline chase. Histopathology was considered as the gold standard. Results: Both modalities showed 100% concordance in the detection of parathyroid lesions. Both FCH-PET/CT and 4D-CT detected 7 lesions in 5 patients, with 4 patients having a single lesion, and 1 patient having three lesions. Of the 7 reported lesions, 4 were eutopic and 3 were ectopic. No additional lesions were detected by either modality in comparison to the other. All 7 specimens were resected and histopathology showed PA/hyperplasia. Conclusion: FCH-PET/CT and 4D-CT are equally efficacious in detection and localization of eutopic and ectopic PA. This may open up the possibility of using FCH-PET/CT in patients with negative conventional imaging who cannot undergo contrast studies.
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Does one size fit everyone? Replacement dose of levothyroxine in long-standing primary hypothyroidismin adults p. 404
Rekha Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_502_16  
Objectives: The recommended starting dose of levothyroxine (LT4) in primary hypothyroidism is 1.6 μg/kg body weight and is based on presumption of minimal residual thyroid function in autoimmune hypothyroidism. This study aimed at finding the range and determining factors for LT4 dose in long-standing hypothyroidism. Methods: A cross-sectional study of individuals with primary autoimmune hypothyroidism on LT4 replacement was done between March 2015 and January 2016. Individuals enrolled were euthyroid based on recent serum thyroid-stimulating hormone. The inclusion criteria included LT4 intake in the morning empty stomach, maintenance of at least 1-h food gap, not on medications known to hamper LT4 absorption within 4 h of dosing, diagnosis of hypothyroidism at least for 1 year, and on a minimum 25 μg LT4. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 346 individuals (290 women and 56 men; 214 premenopausal and 76 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The mean duration of hypothyroidism and age were 5.7 years and 42.1 years, respectively. The range and mean of absolute LT4 daily dose (ADD), LT4 dose based on body weight (D/W), and LT4 dose based on ideal body weight (D/IBW) were 25–200 μg daily and 77.1 μg, 0.3–2.82 μg/kg and 1.21 μg/kg, and 0.42–3.5 μg/kg and 1.58 μg/kg, respectively. Duration of hypothyroidism was significant predictors of ADD, D/W, and D/IBW. Gender-based difference in ADD and D/IBW was explained by gender difference in anthropometry. Conclusion: Long-standing primary autoimmune hypothyroidism has variable dose requirement of LT4 for achieving euthyroidism and may be dependent on the degree of residual functional thyroid. Duration of hypothyroidism was significant positive predictor for either ADD, D/W, or D/IBW.
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Glycosylation gap in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease and healthy participants: A comparative study p. 410
Km Neelofar, Jamal Ahmad
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_2_17  
Aim: The aim of this study it to determine the level of glycosylation gap in patients with type 2 diabetes and its relation with kidney dysfunction. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 individuals were enrolled (aged 20–75 year) and divided into three groups. Group 1 included 50 nondiabetic individuals who served as control. Group 2 included 50 patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD), and in Group 3, there were 50 patients with type 2 diabetes with CKD. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fructosamine (FA) were measured in all groups to determine the glycosylation gap (GG), predicted HbA1c, and mean blood glucose (MBG). GG is defined as the difference between measured HbA1c and HbA1c predicted from FA based on the population regression of HbA1c on FA. The variables were compared by correlation analysis. Results: Serum creatinine level was significantly high in patients with CKD (1.93 ± 0.99) as compared to patients with diabetes and control (0.891 ± 0.16; 0.912 ± 0.1), respectively. The study demonstrated a significant elevation in serum FA, measured HbA1c and predicted HbA1c, MBG in patients with diabetes with CKD as compared with those of without CKD, and controls. GG was found in healthy control (0.51 ± 0.78), patients with type 2 diabetes without CKD (0.62 ± 0.45), and patients with diabetes with CKD (1.0 ± 0.91), respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that GG may be a useful clinical research tool for evaluating pathological source of variation in diabetes complications such as kidney disease.
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Efficacy of teriparatide in patients with hypoparathyroidism: A prospective, open-label study p. 415
Vimal Upreti, Shrikant Somani, Narendra Kotwal
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_340_16  
Context: Conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism with calcium, Vitamin D analogs, and thiazide diuretics is often suboptimal, and these patients have poor quality of life. Teriparatide (parathyroid hormone 1–34 [PTH (1–34)]), an amide of PTH, is widely available for the use in osteoporosis; however, its use in hypoparathyroidism is limited. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PTH (1–34) in the treatment of patients with hypoparathyroidism. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, open-label interventional study in a tertiary care hospital of Indian Armed Forces. Subjects and Methods: All patients with hypoparathyroidism presented to the endocrinology outpatient department were included and were exhibited injection PTH (1–34) 20 μg twice daily that was gradually reduced to 10 μg twice daily along with calcium, active Vitamin D (alfacalcidol), and hydrochlorothiazide. Oral calcium and alfacalcidol doses were also reduced to maintain serum calcium within normal range. The quality of life (QOL) score was calculated using RAND 36 QOL questionnaire at baseline and termination of the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was used to calculate pre- and post-treatment variables. Results: Eight patients (two males) were included in this study having mean age of 35.8 years. PTH (1–34) treatment led to the improvement in serum calcium (6.81–8.84 mg/dl), phosphorous (5.8–4.2 mg/dl), and 24 h urinary calcium excretion (416–203.6 mg). Parameters of QOL showed the improvement in overall QOL, physical performance, energy, and fatigue scores. No major adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Treatment of hypoparathyroidism with PTH (1–34) leads to improvement in calcium profile, reduction in hypercalciuria, and improvement in QOL, whereas it is safe and well tolerated.
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Visual evoked potentials in overt hypothyroid patients before and after achievement of euthyroidism p. 419
Aprajita , Geetanjali Sharma, Sameer Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_366_16  
Background: Visual evoked potential (VEP) measures the time taken for visual stimulus to travel from the eye to the occipital cortex. Hypothyroidism affects the central nervous system (CNS) through its role in gene expression, myelin production, axonal transportation, and neurotransmitters. Delay in the conduction of impulses results in abnormal VEP. Objective: Correlate the electrophysiological findings of VEP in newly diagnosed treatment-naive hypothyroid patients before and after 3 months of treatment and to find the correlation with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Materials and Methods: VEP was measured using Recorders and Medicare Systems Electromyograph Evoked Potential Mark II machine in 30 patients (serum TSH ≥10 mIU/L) between 18 and 50 years of age who were followed up after 3 months of treatment. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation) of the patients was 31.8 (±8.3) years. There was prolongation of VEP latencies which tends to decrease following hormone replacement therapy. It was found to be most significant for P100 (ms) waveform (P < 0.001). The amplitude (P100-N75 mV) which was decreased in hypothyroid patients showed improvement following achievement of euthyroidism. Significant positive correlation was found between P100, N75 latency and pretreatment serum TSH levels. Conclusion: Hypothyroid patients may have changes in the latencies and the amplitude of VEP which are reversible to a great extent with thyroxine replacement therapy. VEP thus acts as a dependable marker for CNS affection in thyroid diseases to detect subtle early changes and to assess the response to treatment in correlation with the clinical improvement.
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Serum vitamin B12 levels in type 2 diabetes patients on metformin compared to those never on metformin: A cross-sectional study p. 424
Nishant Raizada, Viveka P Jyotsna, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Nikhil Tandon
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_529_16  
Context: There are limited data about the effect of metformin use on serum Vitamin B12 levels in type 2 diabetes patients from India. Aims: We studied serum Vitamin B12 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were receiving metformin and compared them to those never treated with metformin. Subjects and Methods: A total of 183 patients (“metformin” group 121, “no metformin” group 63) of type 2 diabetes from the endocrinology clinic of a tertiary care center in North India were studied. Serum Vitamin B12 levels were measured in all patients. Diabetic neuropathy symptom score (DNS) and diabetic neuropathy examination score (DNE) were used to assess peripheral neuropathy while hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were used to assess anemia. Results: The serum Vitamin B12 levels were 267.7 ± 194.4 pmol/l in metformin group and 275.1 ± 197.2 pmol/l in the no metformin group (P = 0.78). When adjusted for duration of diabetes, metformin use was associated with a 87.7 ± 37.7 pmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI], −162.1–−3.3, P = 0.02) lower serum Vitamin B12 levels. No significant increase in the prevalence of neuropathy (DNS and DNE scores), anemia, or MCV was found in the Vitamin B12 deficient patients (levels <150 pmol/l) as compared to patients with normal Vitamin B12. However, serum Vitamin B12 levels for the entire cohort were higher by 12.2 ± 3.0 pmol/l (95% CI 6.4–18.0, P< 0.001) for every 1 year increase in the duration of diabetes. Conclusions: Metformin use was associated with a lower serum Vitamin B12 levels when adjusted for duration of diabetes. Increasing duration of diabetes was associated with higher serum Vitamin B12 levels.
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Knowledge, awareness, practices and adherence to treatment of patients with primary hypothyroidism in Delhi p. 429
Pradeep Kumar, Deepak Khandelwal, Suresh Mittal, Deep Dutta, Sanjay Kalra, Pratima Katiyar, Vivek Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_49_17  
Background: There is a paucity of data on knowledge, awareness, and practices (KAP) of patients with hypothyroidism in India. Aims and Objectives: To study the KAP and adherence to treatment of participants with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in Endocrinology Outpatient Department of Maharaja Agrasen Hospital, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi. Two-fifty consecutive primary hypothyroidism participants, aged ≥18 years, who were on treatment for at least 3 months responded to a structured questionnaire, to assess their KAP about the disease and adherence to treatment. Results: A total of 250 patients completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 43.24 ± 10.80 years; with majority being females (85.6%). The median duration of hypothyroidism was 8 years (range: 3–10). Most were well educated, with 53.6% being graduates/postgraduates. Knowledge and awareness related to hypothyroidism was poor in majority of participants. Only 35.2% and 51.2% knew correct meaning of the terms “thyroid” and “hypothyroidism” respectively. Only 25.6% participants knew correctly that thyroxine (T4) is used to replace and normalize blood levels of thyroid hormone. Forty percent had false dietary beliefs in the context of hypothyroidism. Ten percent participants felt T4 can be stopped once laboratory reports return to normal. Only 36.4% participants knew correctly that T4 need to be continued during pregnancy. Many participants (30.4%) believed hypothyroidism can lead to weight gain in excess of 10 kg. Regarding adherence, 90.4% participants were adherent to T4, 2.4% were moderately adherent, and remaining 7.2% participants were nonadherent to T4. Conclusion: A large number of patients with primary hypothyroidism lack basic knowledge about disease and have dietary and treatment-related prejudices and poor treatment adherence. Public health measures are required to improve KAP in patients with primary hypothyroidism.
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Pubertal onset in apparently healthy Indian boys and impact of obesity p. 434
Vineet Surana, Aashima Dabas, Rajesh Khadgawat, Raman Kumar Marwaha, V Sreenivas, M Ashraf Ganie, Nandita Gupta, Neena Mehan
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_18_17  
Objective: Primary - to determine the age of pubertal onset in Indian boys. Secondary - (a) to assess the impact of obesity on pubertal timing, (b) to assess the relationship between gonadotropins and puberty. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: General community-seven schools across New Delhi. Participants: Random sample of 1306 school boys, aged 6–17 years. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurement for weight and height and pubertal staging was performed for all subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated to define overweight/obesity. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone, and serum testosterone were measured in every sixth subject. Main Outcome Measure: Age at pubertal onset-testicular volume ≥4 mL (gonadarche) and pubic hair Stage II. Results: Median age of attaining gonadarche and pubarche was 10.41 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2–10.6 years) and 13.60 (95% CI: 13.3–14.0 years), respectively. No significant difference in the age of attainment of gonadarche was observed in boys with normal or raised BMI, though pubarche occurred 8 months earlier in the latter group. Serum gonadotropins and testosterone increased with increasing stages of puberty but were unaffected by BMI. Serum LH level of 1.02 mIU/mL and testosterone level of >0.14 ng/mL showed the best prediction for pubertal onset. Conclusion: The study establishes a secular trend of the age of onset of puberty in Indian boys. Pubarche occurred earlier in overweight/obese boys. The cutoff levels of serum LH and testosterone for prediction of pubertal onset have been established.
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Patterns and correlates of serum magnesium levels in subsets of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria p. 439
Olatunde O Odusan, Oluranti Babatope Familoni, Adesina O Odewabi, Akolade O Idowu, Ayodeji S Adekolade
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_190_16  
Background: Magnesium (Mg) is the 4th most common mineral and the 2nd most abundant intracellular cation in the body. It plays major roles in various physiological activities and has been implicated in many disease states. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the patterns and correlates of serum Mg in cohorts of type 2 diabetic patients in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients comprising 63 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) alone and 62 with diabetes and hypertension (HT) were compared with fifty controls matched for sex and age. Basic data, HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were obtained while serum Mg was measured by colorimeter. Relationship between serum Mg and glucose control was considered while serum Mg < 1.6 mg/dl was considered as hypomagnesemia. Results: The mean serum Mg of all patients was 2.06 ± 0.49 mg/dl, not statistically different from controls at 2.22 ± 0.48 mg/dl. About ¼ (23.2%) of the patients had hypomagnesemia which was significantly more than 12% of controls. Although the patients with diabetes and HT were older and more of females than those with DM alone, the mean serum Mg was comparable (2.03 ± 0.49 vs. 2.09 + 0.50 mg/dl). Twenty-seven percent (27%) of patients who had DM alone was more than 19.3% with HT and diabetes combined. Whereas the FBG was comparable in patients with hypomagnesemia and normal serum Mg, HbA1c was significantly higher in the hypomagnesemia group (8.39 ± 0.98 vs. 6.75 ± 1.22%, P = 0.021). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is common in T2DM outpatients occurring approximately one in four patients. It is associated with poor long-term control.
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An audit of insulin usage and insulin injection practices in a large Indian cohort p. 443
Manash P Baruah, Sanjay Kalra, Saptarshi Bose, Jumi Deka
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_548_16  
Introduction: Insulin remains the cornerstone of therapy in a substantial number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inadequate knowledge regarding insulin usage is likely to influence its acceptance and adherence, and outcome of therapy, underscoring great need to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practice of insulin usage in patients with T2DM. Methodology: A cross-sectional registry-based retrospective study analyzed data collected from 748 respondents (male: 466, female: 282), mostly from high or middle economic status, who were enrolled as outpatient in a referral clinic during last 10 years (2006–2016), to assess the general characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes and their baseline knowledge, attitude, and practice of insulin usage and injection practices. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of duration of diabetes was 12.24 ± 7.60 years and mean ± SD duration of insulin therapy was 3.42 ± 4.18 years, which was initiated after a mean ± SD diabetes duration of 8.80 ± 6.42 years. Mean insulin dose per kilogram of body weight/day was 0.51 ± 0.27 units. Total daily dose of insulin was 33.36 ± 18.44 units and number of injections/day (mean ± SD) was 2.06 ± 0.73. Among the respondents, 58.96% were on human insulin and 35.70% were on analog insulin. Pen devices were used by 66.08% of the population whereas 31.76% used insulin syringes. The prevalence of lipohypertrophy (LH) was 12.57%, which was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with wrong technique with regard to injection angle (10.45% vs. 23.02%), site of injection (7.00% vs. 30.51%), rotation of site of injection (0.88% vs. 17.66%), and reuse of needle (5.77% vs. 15.19%). LH was also significantly (P < 0.05) associated with the use of human (14.74%) compared to analog insulin (8.24%). Conclusion: The current study highlights the unique patterns of insulin usage and associated high prevalence of LH among insulin users in India.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Diabetes care: Inspiration from Sikhism p. 453
Gagan Priya, Sanjay Kalra, Inderpreet Kaur Dardi, Simarjeet Saini, Sameer Aggarwal, Ramanbir Singh, Harpreet Kaur, Gurinder Singh, Vipin Talwar, Parminder Singh, JS Saini, Sandeep Julka, Rajeev Chawla, Sarita Bajaj, Devinder Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_52_17  
Religion has been proposed as a means of enhancing patient and community acceptance of diabetes and cultural specific motivational strategies to improve diabetes care. Sikhism is a young and vibrant religion, spread across the world and the Holy Scripture Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) is regarded as the living Guru by all Sikhs. The three key pillars of Sikhism are Kirat Karni (honest living), Vand Chakna (sharing with others) and Naam Japna (focus on God). They can help encourage the diabetes care provider, patient and community to engage in lifestyle modification, shared responsibility, positive thinking and stress management. The verses (Sabads) from the SGGS, with their timeless relevance, span the entire spectrum of diabetes care, from primordial and primary, to secondary and tertiary prevention. They can provide us with guidance towards a holistic approach towards health and lifestyle related diseases as diabetes. The SGGS suggests that good actions are based on one's body and highlights the relevance of mind-body interactions and entraining the mind to cultivate healthy living habits. The ethics of sharing, community and inclusiveness all lay emphasis on the need for global and unified efforts to manage and reduce the burden of the diabetes pandemic.
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Management of glycemia in acute febrile illness p. 460
Sanjay Kalra, Sameer Aggarwal, Deepak Khandelwal, Deep Dutta
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_544_16  
With increasing the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes across the globe, a large number of patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) are likely to have concomitant diabetes or stress hyperglycemia. Management of associated hyperglycemia in patients with AFI is of utmost importance for early recovery and to prevent complications. There is no published literature, detailing the strategies and targets for glycemic control in AFI specifically; however, guidelines do exist for the management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized or outpatients in general. This review attempts to provide pragmatic and practical suggestions to facilitate effective and safe management of hyperglycemia in patients with AFI.
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Endocrine glands and hearing: Auditory manifestations of various endocrine and metabolic conditions p. 464
Kripa Elizabeth Cherian, Nitin Kapoor, Suma Susan Mathews, Thomas Vizhalil Paul
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_10_17  
The aetiology of hearing loss in humans is multifactorial. Besides genetic, environmental and infectious causes, several endocrine and metabolic abnormalities are associated with varying degrees of hearing impairment. The pattern of hearing loss may be conductive, sensori-neural or mixed. The neurophysiology of hearing as well as the anatomical structure of the auditory system may be influenced by changes in the hormonal and metabolic milieu. Optimal management of these conditions requires the integrated efforts of the otolaryngologist and the endocrinologist. The presence of hearing loss especially in the young age group should prompt the clinician to explore the possibility of an associated endocrine or metabolic disorder for timely referral and early initiation of treatment.
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Characteristics of pediatric pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma p. 470
Vijaya Sarathi
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_558_16  
The “rule of 10” used to describe pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas (PCC/PGLs) has been challenged. However, recent studies suggested that pediatric PCC/PGLs may follow a pattern. Hence, we reviewed the available literature to verify the same. We searched PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar for studies describing the genotype and/or phenotype characteristics of pediatric PCC/PGL cohorts published after 2000 in English language and those with sample size more than 35 were included in this review. Pediatric PCC/PGLs were malignant in 10%, synchronous bilateral in 20%, extra-adrenal in 30%, among which, 30% were extra-abdominal and familial in 40%. PCC/PGL diagnosed during pediatric age recurs in 50% by 30 years of follow-up and 60% cases occur in boys. Seventy percent of children with PCC/PGL are likely to have sustained hypertension. Germline mutations could be identified in 80% of children with PCC/PGL and 90% are secretory. The review concludes that pediatric PCC/PGLs follow a pattern, which we call “10%–90% rule.” This new rule will help easily remember the characteristics of pediatric PCC/PGLs.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

Patient-centered management of hypothyroidism p. 475
Sanjay Kalra, Navneet Agarwal, Rashmi Aggarwal, Sameer Agarwal, Sarita Bajaj, Ganapathi Bantwal, AK Das, Sujoy Ghosh, Pritam Gupta, Deepak Khandelwal, Vijay Negalur, Banshi Saboo, Rakesh Sahay, Mangesh Tiwaskar, AG Unnikrishnan
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_93_17  
This communication from the National Indian Patient-centered Thyroid management group (InPACT) deals with a novel, yet essential, aspect of hypothyroidism management. The authors describe the role and scope of patient-centered care in this condition. They focus on the relevance of a patient-centered clinical approach, which will help decide appropriate targets, as well as techniques to achieve those targets. Means of helping persons with hypothyroidism live a healthy life, such as education about precaution in concomitant food and medications intake, as well as sick day management, are discussed.
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Choice of insulin in type 2 diabetes: A Southeast Asian perspective p. 478
Sanjay Kalra, Hong Quang Thai, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Goh Su-Yen, Mafauzy Mohamed, Tint Swe Latt, Than Than Aye, Zafar Ahmed Latif, Prasad Katulanda, Touch Khun, Sum Satha, Vadsana Vongvandy
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_82_17  
Southeast Asia faces a diabetes epidemic, which has created significant challenges for health care. The unique Asian diabetes phenotype, coupled with peculiar lifestyle, diet, and healthcare-seeking behavior, makes it imperative to develop clinical pathways and guidelines which address local needs and requirements. From an insulin-centric viewpoint, the preparations prescribed in such pathways should be effective, safe, well tolerated, nonintrusive, and suitable for the use in multiple clinical situations including initiation and intensification. This brief communication describes the utility of premixed or dual action insulin in such clinical pathways and guidelines.
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Diabetes destiny in our hands: Achieving metabolic karma p. 482
Sanjay Kalra, Jignesh Ved, Manash P Baruah
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_571_16  
Karma is the ancient Indian philosophy of cause and effect, which implies that an individual's intentions, and actions, both have consequences. None can escape the consequences of one's actions. Applying the principle of karma to medicine and healthcare, the significance of optimal and timely interventions at various stages of disease, may be realized. A holistic approach to metabolic control in diabetes translates into improved clinical outcomes, as evident from the result of STENO-2, EMPA-REG OUTCOME, or LEADER trials. The principle of karma in the management of diabetes may have implications at the transgenerational level during pregnancy and nursing, at the individual patient-level based on phenotype, and at the community level in preventive medicine. The concept of metabolic karma can be used as an effective motivational tool to encourage better health care seeking behavior and adherence to prescribed interventions.
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Gestational pituitary apoplexy p. 484
Anand K Annamalai, Gopalakrishnan Jeyachitra, Anandkumar Jeyamithra, Manoharan Ganeshkumar, KG Srinivasan, Mark Gurnell
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_8_17  
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Prevalence of islet autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes p. 485
Devi Dayal, Avani Hegde
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_24_17  
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Indian and American guidance on psychosocial care of persons with diabetes p. 486
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Sanjay Kalra
DOI:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_545_16  
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