Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

: 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 507--513

Vitamin D, thyroid autoimmunity and cancer: An interplay of different factors

Deep Dutta1, Meha Sharma2, Sameer Aggarwal3, Ritin Mohindra4, Saptarshi Bhattacharya5, Sanjay Kalra6,  
1 Department of Endocrinology, CEDAR Super-Specialty Clinics, Dwarka, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Rheumatology, CEDAR Super-Specialty Clinics, Dwarka, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Apex Super-Specialty Hospital, Rohtak, Haryana, India
4 Department of Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
5 Department of Endocrinology, Max Superspecialty Hospital, Patparganj, New Delhi, India
6 Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Deep Dutta
Department of Endocrinology, Center for Endocrinology Diabetes Arthritis and Rheumatism Super-specialty Clinics, Sector-13, Dwarka, New Delhi - 110 078


Background and Aims: In spite of large volume of data linking Vitamin D with cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, cancer, and virtually every organ system, Vitamin D and thyroid is a lesser-known aspect of Vitamin D in clinical practice. This article intends to highlight the current literature on the impact of Vitamin D status and supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity and cancer. Methods: References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed for articles published to from 1950 to August 2019 using the terms “thyroid” [MeSH Terms] AND “Vitamin D” [MeSH Terms] OR “thyroid” [All Fields] AND “Vitamin D” [All Fields]. Results: Significant inverse correlation was documented between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and serum 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D (25OHD). TPOAb positivity is more prevalent in Vitamin D deficient individuals. A large volume of medical literature is available from observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity. Data from interventional studies documenting beneficial effects of Vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity is also available, but lesser than that from observational studies. Short-term high dose oral Vitamin D supplementation reduces TPOAb titers. Certain Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism have been linked to increased occurrence of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). Vitamin D deficiency, decreased circulating calcitriol has been linked to increased thyroid cancer. Certain VDR gene polymorphisms have been linked with increased as well as decreased occurrence of thyroid cancer. Data is scant on use of Vitamin D and its analogues for treating thyroid cancer. Conclusion: In spite of large volume of medical literature from observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity and cancer, meaningful concrete clinical data on impact of Vitamin D supplementation on hard clinical end points in these disorders is lacking, and should be the primary area of research in the next decade.

How to cite this article:
Dutta D, Sharma M, Aggarwal S, Mohindra R, Bhattacharya S, Kalra S. Vitamin D, thyroid autoimmunity and cancer: An interplay of different factors.Indian J Endocr Metab 2019;23:507-513

How to cite this URL:
Dutta D, Sharma M, Aggarwal S, Mohindra R, Bhattacharya S, Kalra S. Vitamin D, thyroid autoimmunity and cancer: An interplay of different factors. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 14 ];23:507-513
Available from:

Full Text


The last two decades have seen an exponential increase in medical literature (basic, translational and clinical studies) linking Vitamin D to various organ systems in the body. Apart from the classical and well known impact of Vitamin D on bone and muscle health,[1],[2] Vitamin D is believed to have a beneficial effect on endothelial dysfunction (microalbuminuria),[3] cardiovascular function and events,[4] insulin resistance,[5] diabetes prevention,[6] better immune function and response to anti-tubercular therapy in patients with tuberculosis,[7] immune-modulatory effects in patients with autoimmune disorders (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis),[8] prevention and remission of multiple sclerosis,[9] better response to immunotherapy in patients post organ transplantation,[10] gonadal function,[11] among the growing list of pleotropic effects of Vitamin D. The reason for this almost ubiquitous role of Vitamin D is perhaps because Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is virtually expressed in every tissue and organ system of the body.[12] Vitamin D mediates its effect though VDR and activation of VDR-responsive genes. Vitamin D and thyroid is however a less known and discussed aspect of Vitamin D in clinical practice. This article intends to highlight the current literature on the impact of Vitamin D status and supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity and cancer.


References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed for articles published to from 1950 to August 2019 using the terms “thyroid” [MeSH Terms] and “Vitamin D” [MeSH Terms] OR “thyroid” [All Fields] AND “Vitamin D” [All Fields]. A total of 1481 articles were found. The title of all the articles were manually screened. 491 articles were removed as they were primarily dealing with parathyroid. 271 articles which were not of human origin were excluded. 92 articles related to diabetes were removed. 33 articles related to pregnancy were removed. This resulted in 594 articles which were manually evaluated for inclusion in the review. The search was not restricted to English-language literature.


Vitamin D and thyroid autoimmunity


Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is believed to be a polygenic disorder.[13] Both genetic predisposition and environmental factors have a role in the genesis of AITD. These include thyroid specific genes, immunomodulatory genes, selenium, iodine, radiation, smoking, infections, among many others that are yet to be defined.[13] Vitamin D enhances the innate immune response while exerting an inhibitory action on the adaptive immune system.[13] Activated Vitamin D (calcitriol) has been demonstrated to modulate the cytokine mileau from a pro-inflammatory to a more tolerogenic immune status.[14] Calcitriol inhibits Th1 and Th17 cell proliferation and differentiation; inhibits production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, interferon-γ, IL-17, IL-21), and promotes production of anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10).[13],[14] Calcitriol also inhibits the B-cell differentiation into plasma cells and production of immunoglobulins.[14] The immunomodulatory properties of Vitamin D raises the possibility of role of Vitamin D in different autoimmune disorders including the AITD.

Vitamin D and thyroid autoimmunity (animal studies)

Vitamin D deficient but not Vitamin D sufficient BALB/c (Bagg and Albino, laboratory bred) mice developed persistent hyperthyroidism after immunization with thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHR Ab).[15] Calcitriol has been demonstrated to reduce thyroid autoantibodies production along with resolution of pathologic changes in the thyroid glands of Wistar rats.[16] Calcitriol had a synergistic effect when added to cyclosporine for prevention of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in CBA mice.[17]

Vitamin D and thyroid autoimmunity (human observational studies)

A total of 21 studies involving more than 3890 patients with AITD have been published till date evaluating the relationship between Vitamin D status and severity of thyroid autoimmunity as evaluated by autoantibody titers.[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34] These studies are often limited by small number of patients, different criteria used for defining Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and different criteria for AITD. Studies with more than 100 patients/controls have been elaborated in [Table 1].{Table 1}

A weak but statistically significant inverse correlation was documented between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and serum 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D (25OHD) titers in a study from New Delhi India in 2009.[18] In the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey involving 4141 participants, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) positivity was more prevalent in the vitamin D deficient group (9.1%) as compared to the sufficient groups (5.3%; P < 0.01).[19] Low Vitamin D has been linked to increased autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) in women with PCOS.[35] In a meta-analysis involving 20 different case-control studies, it was observed that patients with AITD (Graves disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis) had significantly lower serum Vitamin D levels and were more likely to be deficient in 25OHD (OR 2.99, 95% CI: 1.88, 4.74).[36]

In another meta-analysis, VDR gene TaqI (rs731236) and BsmI (rs1544410) polymorphisms were significantly associated with AITD risk (OR = 0.801 95% CI 0.705-0.910, Pz = 0.001 for B vs. b; OR = 0.854, 95% CI 0.757-0.963, Pz = 0.010 for t vs. T respectively).[37]

Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with increased systemic inflammation. Increased systemic inflammation has been linked with increased insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and obesity. In a genetically predisposed individual to thyroid autoimmunity, Vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome has been linked to increased systemic inflammation and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.[38] Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased risk of gestational diabetes and neonatal intensive care admission in women with thyroid autoimmunity.[39]

In a study from Poland, atorvastatin therapy of 20-40 mg/day over a period of 6 months was associated with significant reduction in thyroid autoantibody titers only in people who were Vitamin D sufficient, suggestive an indirect beneficial impact of Vitamin D sufficiency on thyroid autoimmunity.[40] In a meta-analysis, specific Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms like VDR rs731236, rs1544410, rs2228570, and rs7975232 were significantly associated with risk for autoimmune thyroid disease.[41] Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism has also been documented to be an independent risk factor for Graves' disease in the Chinese Han population.[42]

Vitamin D and thyroid autoimmunity (human interventional studies)

Daily cholecalciferol supplementation of 1000 U/d for 1 month was associated with a significant reduction in TPOAb and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) titers in a cohort of 46 patients from Turkey.[43] In a randomized controlled trial, we demonstrated a significant 46% reduction in TPOAb titers following 3 months of weekly 60,000 U weekly of cholecalciferol supplementation in newly diagnosed, Vitamin D deficient, treatment naïve primary and subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to only 16% reduction in the control group.[44] Beneficial effects of Vitamin D supplementation on TPOAb titers (viz. reduction in antibody titers) following Vitamin D supplementation have also been documented even in Vitamin D sufficient patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, in a study from Poland.[45] In that study, the reductions were more pronounced for TPOAb titers as compared to TgAb titers.[45] In a placebo controlled randomized controlled trial (RCT) study from Iran in which 21 women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were randomized to receive either cholecalciferol (50,000 U) or placebo pearls for 3 months, a significant reduction in anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and TSH titers were noted at the end of the study, without any impact on TPOAb, T3 and T4 hormone levels[46] However whether this reduction in TSH levels over a short period of time of 3 months translating to reduction in long term levothyroxine requirements needs further evaluation in longer studies.

In a small study on euthyroid men with thyroid autoimmunity, both Vitamin D vs. selenium supplementation were associated with equivalent reduction in thyroid antibody titer over a period of 6 months, suggesting their independent beneficial impact on thyroid autoimmunity.[47] In another study by the same group, in a cohort of 47 euthyroid patients with thyroid autoimmunity, Vitamin D supplementation of 4000 IU for 6 months was associated with significant reductions in circulating levels of TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody titers, and the effect was more pronounced in people who had been treated with selenomethionine (200 μg daily) in the prior 1 year, suggesting perhaps an adjunctive effect of Vitamin D with selenium supplementation.[48] In a meta-analysis comprising of 6 RCTs and involving 344 patients with AITD, Vitamin D supplementation was associated with significant reductions in TPOAb and TgAb titers at 6 months follow-up.[49] In a RCT involving 251 apparently healthy individuals, low dose vitamin supplementation (400 IU/day and 1000 IU/day) as compared to placebo did not result in any significant change in TPOAb and TSH titers at 16 weeks of follow-up.[50] Limitations of this study include the fact that most of the patients in these studies were healthy individuals without AITD and had TPOAb titers in the normal range. Also the serum 25OHD levels in the supplementation groups increased from 26 to 49 nmol/L at the end of the study, which continued to be in the Vitamin D deficiency range.[50] It can be said that the very low dose Vitamin D used in this study, did not result in any meaningful changes in the serum 25OHD, and hence no meaningful changes in TPOAb titers is expected. This study also highlighted that blanket blind Vitamin D supplementation in people without AITD may not have any meaningful impact on TPOAb titers and TSH levels.

However, whether this beneficial impact on TPOAb titers following Vitamin D supplementation actually translates to a lower levothyroxine requirement in the long run is not known and needs long-term follow-up studies.

In this regard, it is interesting to consider that in a small study from Iran, it was noted that Vitamin D supplementation over 12 weeks in people with primary hypothyroidism was associated with an independent reduction in serum TSH levels. However, a reduction in levothyroxine requirement was not documented in this study.[51]

Vitamin D and thyroid cancer


Vitamin D through Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has both direct and indirect effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis.[52] Calcitriol increases the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI), which have potent negative impact on cell proliferation.[53] Vitamin D influences microRNA expression which also has an additional negative influence on cell growth and proliferation.[54] Calcitriol induces caspase expression along with other pro-apoptotic proteins (BAX, BAK, and BAD), thus promoting apoptosis of tumor cells.[54]

Vitamin D and thyroid cancer (cell culture and animal studies)

Calcitriol has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of thyroid cancer stem cells.[55] Calcitriol reduced tumor size and prevented metastatic growth in SCID mice that were implanted with human thyroid follicular carcinoma-derived (WRO) cells.[56] Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms has been demonstrated to have an impact on Vitamin D metabolism in thyroid tissue, which may modulate the anti-tumor effect of Vitamin D in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).[57] VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells has been linked to increased ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and type II trans-membrane serine protease-4 (TPMRSS4) expression, which are tissue markers of increased local invasion and metastasis,[58] highlighting the potential role of Vitamin D analogues in down regulating VDR and thus having a beneficial impact on thyroid cancer. Studies have shown that the efficacy of VDR agonist therapy to decrease viable thyroid cancer cell count depends on the FF FokI VDR genotype polymorphisms.[59] Higher baseline 24-hydroxylase levels were also associated with relative resistance to calcitriol and other VDR agonists (DP006) in inhibiting and killing thyroid cancer cells.[59]

Vitamin D and thyroid cancer (human studies)

Lower circulating levels of calcitriol (the active form of Vitamin D) have been documented in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.[60] In a study involving 212 patients with thyroid nodules, presence of Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD <37.5 nmol/L) in the peroperative state was associated with higher occurrence of malignancy on post-operative histopathologic evaluation (75% vs. 37.5%).[61] A significantly lower serum 25OHD was documented in 344 patients with papillary thyroid cancer as compared to healthy controls.[62] In 548 women undergoing thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer, the pre-surgery serum 25OHD was significantly lower in patients with tumor diameter more than 1 cm and/or tumor metastasis.[63] In another study, serum calcitriol was significantly lower in 172 patients with DTC when compared to 321 healthy controls.[64] The same authors demonstrated an association between differentiated thyroid cancer and low 25OHD and calcitriol levels in certain CYP24A1 haplotypes.[65]

A significant number of negative literatures are also available where they have found no relation between the Vitamin D status and the occurrence and severity of thyroid malignancy. Preoperative serum 25OHD was not a predictor of disease aggressiveness or poor outcomes among 820 patients with papillary thyroid cancer.[66] In another study involving 433 patients with thyroid nodules who underwent thyroidectomy, quartiles of serum 25OHD was not a predictor of malignancy or benign lesions.[67] In a study involving 410 patients with thyroid nodules, Vitamin D deficiency was not a predictor of malignancy detected either during needle aspiration or following thyroidectomy.[13] Population screening of 5186 individuals revealed that serum 25OHD was not a predictor of malignancy in the general population.[68] In another study involving 177 patients with papillary thyroid cancer, it was not the Vitamin D or adipocytokine status, but the occurrence of obesity, especially central obesity, which was the strongest predictor of malignancy.[69]

Genetic polymorphisms of VDR, cytochrome P450, and factors, which modulate Vitamin D metabolism, signaling and action, play an important role in the pathogenesis of different cancers including thyroid cancer.[60] Increased activity of vitamin D-inactivating CYP24A1 gene in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been linked to increased tumor malignity (mainly vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor size), suggesting that CYP24A1 may be directly involved in thyroid carcinogenesis.[70] Polymorphism of VDR of alleles AA and FF of the ApaI (rs7975232), FokI (rs10735810) and haplotype tABF are believed to confer protection from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).[50] The haplotype tABF is believed to be associated with an increased FTC risk.[71]

Sirtuin 1 histon deacethylase (SIRT1) is believed to link the vitamin D pathway with regulation of transcription factor FOXO3a, a key player in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.[72] In a study from Germany, FOXO3a rs9400239T and rs4945816C, which has been linked with thyroid malignancy, was also documented to be a risk factor for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.[58] Vitamin D is believed to exert its antiproliferative effects through its impact on vitamin D-SIRT1-FOXO3a axis.[72] In a case control study involving 276 Chinese Han people, a high level of circulating 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D was associated with decreased risks for thyroid cancer.[73] In a meta-analysis involving 14 different studies, lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, especially in the Vitamin D deficiency range was associated with increased risk for thyroid cancer.[74]


To conclude, a large volume of medical literature is available from cross-sectional and observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity. Data from interventional studies documenting beneficial effects of Vitamin D supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity is also available, but lesser than that from cross-sectional and observational studies. Limitations of these interventional studies include small number of patients evaluated, heterogeneity of dosage and preparation of Vitamin D used in these studies, short duration of follow-up, and end points primarily being reduction in titers of thyroid auto-antibodies. Data on whether correction of Vitamin D deficiency in AITD results in reduction in the requirement of levothyroxine or carbimazole in hypothyroidism or Graves' disease respectively is not available. Hence there is an urgent need for large, multi-centric studies to evaluate the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on meaningful long-term clinical end points in AITD. Similarly, in spite of large volume of literature available linking Vitamin D deficiency, VDR gene polymorphisms, calcitriol metabolism with thyroid cancer, there is scant data from interventional studies on the same, which should be the major area for research in the next decade. However it must be realized that as of today, Vitamin D should not be considered as a panacea for all illness including thyroid disorders. Rampant unmonitored Vitamin D supplementation, especially parental has been associated with an exponential increase in the occurrence of Vitamin D intoxication in the last one decade, which is easily avoidable, as it is a difficult to treat condition with significant morbidity.[75],[76]

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


1Biswas D, Dutta D, Maisnam I, Mukhopadhyay S, Chowdhury S. Occurrence of osteoporosis and factors determining bone mineral loss in young adults with Graves' disease. Indian J Med Res 2015;141:322-9.
2Maisnam I, Dutta D, Mukhopadhyay S, Chowdhury S. Lean mass is the strongest predictor of bone mineral content in type-2 diabetes and normal individuals: An eastern India perspective. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2014;13:90.
3Dutta D, Choudhuri S, Mondal SA, Mukherjee S, Chowdhury S. Urinary albumin: Creatinine ratio predicts prediabetes progression to diabetes and reversal to normoglycemia: Role of associated insulin resistance, inflammatory cytokines and low vitamin D. J Diabetes 2014;6:316-22.
4Mukhopadhyay S, Mondal SA, Kumar M, Dutta D. Proinflammatory and antiinflammatory attributes of fetuin-a: A novel hepatokine modulating cardiovascular and glycemic outcomes in metabolic syndrome. Endocr Pract 2014;20:1345-51.
5Dutta D, Maisnam I, Shrivastava A, Sinha A, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay P, et al. Serum Vitamin D predicts insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes. Indian J Med Res 2013;138:853-60.
6Dutta D, Mondal SA, Choudhuri S, Maisnam I, Hasanoor Reza AH, Bhattacharya B, et al. Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes reduced progression to type 2 diabetes and was associated with decreased insulin resistance and systemic inflammation: An open label randomized prospective study from Eastern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014;103:e18-23.
7McCullough PJ, Lehrer DS. Vitamin D, cod liver oil, sunshine, and phototherapy: Safe, effective and forgotten tools for treating and curing tuberculosis infections - A comprehensive review. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017;177:21-9.
8He XJ, Ding Y, Xiang W, Dang XQ. Roles of 1, 25(OH) 2D3 and vitamin D receptor in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:743-56.
9Sintzel MB, Rametta M, Reder AT. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: A comprehensive review. Neurol Ther 2017;7:59-85.
10Sarno G, Nappi R, Altieri B, Tirabassi G, Muscogiuri E, Salvio G, et al. Current evidence on vitamin D deficiency and kidney transplant: What's new? Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017;18:323-34.
11Dutta D, Sharma LK, Sharma N, Gadpayle AK, Anand A, Gaurav K, et al. Occurrence, patterns and predictors of hypogonadism in patients with HIV infection in India. Indian J Med Res 2017;145:804-14.
12Caprio M, Infante M, Calanchini M, Mammi C, Fabbri A. Vitamin D: Not just the bone. Evidence for beneficial pleiotropic extraskeletal effects. Eat Weight Disord 2017;22:27-41.
13Kim D. The role of vitamin D in thyroid diseases. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:1949.
14Baeke F, Takiishi T, Korf, H, Gysemans C, Mathieu C. Vitamin D: Modulator of the immune system. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2010;10:482-96.
15Misharin A, Hewison M, Chen CR, Lagishetty V, Aliesky HA, Mizutori Y, et al. Vitamin D deficiency modulates Graves' hyperthyroidism induced in BALB/c mice by thyrotropin receptor immunization. Endocrinology 2009;50:1051-60.
16Liu S, Xiong F, Liu EM, Zhu M, Lei PY. Effects of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rats with experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. J South Med Univ 2010;30:1573-6.
17Chen W, Lin H, Wang M. Immune intervention effects on the induction of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci 2002;22:343-5.
18Goswami R, Marwaha RK, Gupta N, Tandon N, Sreenivas V, Tomar N, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its relationship with thyroid autoimmunity in Asian Indians: A community-based survey. Br J Nutr 2009;102:382-6.
19Kim M, Song E, Oh HS, Park S, Kwon H, Jeon MJ, et al. Vitamin D deficiency affects thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in iodine-replete area: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey. Endocrine 2017;58:332-9.
20Wang X, Zynat J, Guo Y, Osiman R, Tuhuti A, Zhao H, et al. Low serum vitamin D is associated with anti-thyroid-globulin antibody in female individuals. Int J Endocrinol 2015;2015:285290.
21Effraimidis G, Badenhoop K, Tijssen JG, Wiersinga WM. Vitamin D deficiency is not associated with early stages of thyroid autoimmunity. Eur J Endocrinol 2012;167:43-8.
22Choi YM, Kim WG, Kim TY, Bae SJ, Kim HK, Jang EK, et al. Low levels of serum vitamin D3 are associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in pre-menopausal women. Thyroid 2014;24:655-61.
23Kim D. Low vitamin D status is associated with hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hormones 2016;15:385-93.
24Unal AD, Tarcin O, Parildar H, Cigerli O, Eroglu H, Demirag NG. Vitamin D deficiency is related to thyroid antibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis. Cent Eur J Immunol 2014;39:493-7.
25Evliyaoǧlu O, Acar M, Özcabı B, Erginöz E, Bucak F, Ercan O, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in children and adolescents: A critical vitamin D level for this association? J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2015;7:128-33.
26Bozkurt NC, Karbek B, Ucan B, Sahin M, Cakal E, Ozbek M, et al. The association between severity of vitamin D deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Endocr Pract 2013;19:479-84.
27Muscogiuri G, Mari D, Prolo S, Fatti LM, Cantone MC, Garagnani P. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and its relationship to autoimmune thyroid disease in the elderly. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016;13:E850.
28Botelho IM, Moura Neto A, Silva CA, Tambascia MA, Alegre SM, Zantut-Wittmann DE. Vitamin D in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and its relationship with thyroid function and inflammatory status. Endocr J 2018;65:1029-37.
29Yasuda T, Okamoto Y, Hamada N, Miyashita K, Takahara M, Sakamoto F, et al. Serum vitamin D levels are decreased in patients without remission of Graves' disease. Endocrine 2013;43:230-2.
30Tamer G, Arik S, Tamer I, Coksert D. Relative vitamin D insufficiency in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid 2011;21:891-6.
31Shin DY, Kim KJ, Kim D, Hwang S, Lee EJ. Low serum vitamin D is associated with anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody in autoimmune thyroiditis. Yonsei Med J 2014;55:476-81.
32Camurdan OM, Döǧer E, Bideci A, Celik N, Cinaz P. Vitamin D status in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012;25:467-70.
33D'Aurizio F, Villalta D, Metus P, Doretto P, Tozzoli R. Is vitamin D a player or not in the pathophysiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases? Autoimmun Rev 2015;14:363-9.
34Mangaraj S, Choudhury AK, Swain BM, Sarangi PK, Mohanty BK, Baliarsinha AK. Evaluation of vitamin D status and its impact on thyroid related parameters in new onset Graves' disease- A cross-sectional observational study. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2019;23:35-9.
35Muscogiuri G, Palomba S, Caggiano M, Tafuri D, Colao A, Orio F. Low 25 (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine 2016;53:538-42.
36Wang J, Lv S, Chen G, Gao C, He J, Zhong H, et al. Meta-analysis of the association between vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid disease. Nutrients 2015;7:2485-98.
37Feng M, Li H, Chen SF, Li WF, Zhang FB. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene and risk of autoimmune thyroid diseases: A meta-analysis. Endocrine 2013;43:318-26.
38Răcătăianu N, Leach NV, Bolboacă SD, Cozma A, Dronca E, Valea A, et al. Vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance and thyroid dysfunction in obese patients: Is inflammation the common link? Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2018;78:560-5.
39Bozdag H, Akdeniz E. Does severe vitamin D deficiency impact obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thyroid autoimmunity? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018:1-11.
40Krysiak R, Szkróbka W, Okopień B. The relationship between statin action on thyroid autoimmunity and vitamin D status: A pilot study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2019;127:23-8.
41Gao XR, Yu YG. Meta-analysis of the association between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. Int J Endocrinol 2018;2018:2846943.
42Meng S, He ST, Jiang WJ, Xiao L, Li DF, Xu J, et al. Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases in a Chinese Han population: Role of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2015;76:684-9.
43Simsek Y, Cakır I, Yetmis M, Dizdar OS, Baspinar O, Gokay F. Effects of vitamin D treatment on thyroid autoimmunity. J Res Med Sci 2016;21:85.
44Chaudhary S, Dutta D, Kumar M, Saha S, Mondal SA, Kumar A, et al. Vitamin D supplementation reduces thyroid peroxidase antibody levels in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease: An open-labeled randomized controlled trial. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2016;20:391-8.
45Krysiak R, Szkróbka W, Okopień B. The effect of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity in levothyroxine-treated women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal vitamin D Status. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017;125:229-33.
46Chahardoli R, Saboor-Yaraghi AA, Amouzegar A, Khalili D, Vakili AZ, Azizi F. Can supplementation with vitamin D modify thyroid autoantibodies (Anti-TPO Ab, Anti-Tg Ab) and thyroid profile (T3, T4, TSH) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis? A double blind, Randomized clinical trial. Horm Metab Res 2019;51:296-301.
47Krysiak R, Szkróbka W, Okopień B. The effect of vitamin D and selenomethionine on thyroid antibody titers, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis activity and thyroid function tests in men with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A pilot study. Pharmacol Rep 2018;71:243-7.
48Krysiak R, Kowalcze K, Okopień B. Selenomethionine potentiates the impact of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity in euthyroid women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and low vitamin D status. Pharmacol Rep 2018;71:367-73.
49Wang S, Wu Y, Zuo Z, Zhao Y, Wang K. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on thyroid autoantibody levels in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis: A systematic review and a meta-analysis. Endocrine 2018;59:499-505.
50Knutsen KV, Madar AA, Brekke M, Meyer HE, Eggemoen ŠR, Mdala I, et al. Effect of vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial among ethnic minorities. J Endocr Soc 2017;1:470-9.
51Talaei A, Ghorbani F, Asemi Z. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on thyroid function in hypothyroid patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2018;22:584-8.
52Feldman D, Krishnan AV, Swami S, Giovannucci E, Feldman BJ. The role of vitamin D in reducing cancer risk and progression. Nat Rev Cancer 2014;14:342-57.
53Díaz L, Díaz-Muñoz M Garciía-Gayán AC, Méndez I. Mechanistic effects of calcitriol in cancer biology. Nutrients 2015;7:5020-50.
54Clinckspoor I, Verlinden L, Mathieu C, Bouillon R, Verstuyf A, Decallonne B. Vitamin D in thyroid tumorigenesis and development. Prog Histochem Cytochem 2013;48:65-98.
55Peng W, Wang K, Zheng R, Derwahl M. 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the proliferation of thyroid cancer stem-like cells via cell cycle arrest. Endocr Res 2016;41:71-80.
56Dackiw AP, Ezzat S, Huang P, Liu W, Asa SL. Vitamin D3 administration induces nuclear p27 accumulation, restores differentiation, and reduces tumor burden in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer. Endocrinology 2004;145:5840-6.
57Yavropoulou MP, Panagiotou G, Topouridou K, Karayannopoulou G, Koletsa T, Zarampoukas T, et al. Vitamin D receptor and progesterone receptor protein and gene expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas: Associations with histological features. J Endocrinol Invest 2017;40:1327-35.
58Izkhakov E, Somjen D, Sharon O, Knoll E, Aizic A, Fliss DM, et al. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2016;159:26-30.
59Sharma V, Fretwell D, Crees Z, Kerege A, Klopper JP. Thyroid cancer resistance to vitamin D receptor activation is associated with 24-hydroxylase levels but not the ff FokI polymorphism. Thyroid 2010;20:1103-11.
60Morand GB, da Silva SD, Hier MP, Alaoui-Jamali MA. Insights into genetic and epigenetic determinants with impact on vitamin d signaling and cancer association studies: The case of thyroid cancer. Front Oncol 2014;4:309.
61Roskies M, Dolev Y, Caglar D, Hier MP, Mlynarek A, Majdan A, et al. Vitamin D deficiency as a potentially modifiable risk factor for thyroid cancer. J. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;41:160-3.
62Sahin M, Uçan B, Giniş Z, Topaloǧlu O, Güngüneş A, Bozkurt NÇ, et al. Vitamin D3 levels and insulin resistance in papillary thyroid cancer patients. Med Oncol 2013;30:589.
63Kim JR, Kim BH, Kim SM, Oh MY, Kim WJ, Jeon YK, et al. Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D is associated with poor clinicopathologic characteristics in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2014;24:1618-24.
64Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Hinsch N, Hansmann ML, Selkinski I, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 2009;19:623-8.
65Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Kahles H, Hinsch N, Hansmann ML, et al. Impaired vitamin D activation and association with CYP24A1 haplotypes in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 2012;22:709-16.
66Ahn HY, Chung YJ, Park KY, Cho BY. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D level does not affect the aggressiveness and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid 2016;26:429-33.
67Danilovic DL, Ferraz-de-Souza B, Fabri AW, Santana NO, Kulcsar MA, Cernea CR, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and TSH as risk factors or prognostic markers in thyroid carcinoma. PLoS One 2016;11:e0164550.
68Choi YM, Kim WG, Kim TY, Bae SJ, Kim HK, Jang EK, et al. Serum vitamin D3 levels are not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence in euthyroid subjects without autoimmune thyroid disease. Korean J Intern Med 2017;32:102-8.
69Warakomski J, Romuk E, Jarząb B, Krajewska J, Siemińska L. Concentrations of selected adipokines, interleukin-6, and vitamin D in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in respect to thyroid cancer stages. Int J Endocrinol 2018;2018:4921803.
70Balla B, Tobiás B, Kósa JP, Podani J, Horváth P, Nagy Z, et al. Vitamin D-neutralizing CYP24A1 expression, oncogenic mutation states and histological findings of human papillary thyroid cancer. J Endocrinol Invest 2015;38:313-21.
71Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Hinsch N, Hansmann ML, Selkinski I, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 2009;19:623-8.
72Roehlen N, Doering C, Hansmann ML, Gruenwald F, Vorlaender C, Bechstein WO, et al. Vitamin D, FOXO3a, and Sirtuin 1 in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid cancer. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018;9:527.
73Hu MJ, Zhang Q, Liang L, Wang SY, Zheng XC, Zhou MM, et al. Association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of thyroid cancer: A case-control study and a meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest 2018;41:1199-210.
74Zhao J, Wang H, Zhang Z, Zhou X, Yao J, Zhang R, et al. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for thyroid cancer: A meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutrition 2019;57:5-11.
75Dutta D, Chowdhury S. Endocrine labomas. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16(Suppl 2):S275-8.
76Sharma LK, Dutta D, Sharma N, Gadpayle AK. The increasing problem of subclinical and overt hypervitaminosis D in India: An institutional experience and review. Nutrition 2017;34:76-81.