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   2012| March  | Volume 16 | Issue 7  
    Online since March 24, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis
Juliana Casqueiro, Janine Casqueiro, Cresio Alves
March 2012, 16(7):27-36
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94253  
In general, infectious diseases are more frequent and/or serious in patients with diabetes mellitus, which potentially increases their morbimortality. The greater frequency of infections in diabetic patients is caused by the hyperglycemic environment that favors immune dysfunction (e.g., damage to the neutrophil function, depression of the antioxidant system, and humoral immunity), micro- and macro-angiopathies, neuropathy, decrease in the antibacterial activity of urine, gastrointestinal and urinary dysmotility, and greater number of medical interventions in these patients. The infections affect all organs and systems. Some of these problems are seen mostly in diabetic people, such as foot infections, malignant external otitis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and gangrenous cholecystitis. In addition to the increased morbidity, infectious processes may be the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus or the precipitating factors for complications inherent to the disease, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. Immunization with anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses.
  98 16,994 4,481
Pleiotropic effects of incretins
Vishal Gupta
March 2012, 16(7):47-56
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94259  
Drugs that augment the incretin system [glucagon like peptide (GLP) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors] represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have shown to improve the health and survival of beta-cells (improvement in postprandial hyperglycemia) and suppress glucagon (improvement in fasting hyperglycemia). The incretins represent a large family of molecules referred to as the "glucagon superfamily of peptide hormones" of which more than 90% of the physiological effects of incretins are accomplished by GLP-1 7-37 and GLP1 7-36 amide and gastric insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 mediates its effects via the GLP-1 receptor, which has a wide tissue distribution [pancreas, lung, heart, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages and monocytes, kidney, gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestine), central nervous system (neoortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus, brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius) and peripheral nervous system]. This would imply that the incretin system has effects outside the pancreas. Over time data has accumulated to suggest that therapies that augment the incretin system has beneficial pleiotrophic effects. The incretins have shown to possess a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and safeguard from neuronal degeneration, improve hepatic inflammation and hepatosteatosis, improve insulin resistance, promote weight loss and induce satiety. There is growing evidence that they may also be renoprotective promoting wound healing and bone health.
  14 4,876 1,477
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients
Charles U Osuji, Emeka G Omejua
March 2012, 16(7):104-109
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94256  
Background: Cardiovascular disease risk factors have a tendency to cluster. The presence of such a cluster in an individual has been designated the metabolic syndrome (MetS). There is a paucity of reports of the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive patients in south east Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria in a tertiary healthcare centre in South East Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population of 250 consecutive newly diagnosed adult hypertensive patients (126 males and 124 females) was evaluated. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done using standardized techniques. After an overnight fast, blood samples were taken for glucose and lipid profile assays. The NCEP ATP III criteria were then applied for the diagnosis of MetS. Results: The prevalence of the MetS among the study population was 31.2%. The sex-specific prevalences were 15.1% and 47.6% among male and female patients respectively. A large number of the patients (40.4%) were at a high potential risk of developing the MetS as they already met 2 of the criteria. The MetS prevalence increased progressively from 14.3% through 23.8%, in the patients aged 24-33years and 34-43 years, respectively to a peak (40.4%) among those aged 44-53 years before declining in those aged 54-63 years (31.8%), 64-73 years (33.3%) and 74 years and above (20.6%). Central obesity was the most common component of the MetS being present in 50.4% of patients (28.6% of males and 72.6% of females). Of the other components, low HDL-C was present in 38.8% (26.2% of males and 51.6% of females), elevated FBS in 12.8% (6.3% of males and 19.4% of females) and elevated triglycerides in 8.8% (11.9% of males and 5.6% of females). Conclusion: The prevalence of the MetS is high among newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi South East Nigeria. This underscores the importance of routine screening of hypertensive patients for other cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  10 3,233 486
Ex vivo generation of glucose sensitive insulin secreting mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue
Shruti D Dave, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
March 2012, 16(7):65-69
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94264  
Background: Diabetics are incapable of producing insulin/have autoimmune mechanisms making it ineffective to control glucose secretion. We present a prospective study of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-MSC) generated from human adipose tissue (h-AD) sans xenogenic material. Materials and Methods: Ten grams h-AD from donor anterior abdominal wall was collected in proliferation medium composed of a-Minimum Essential Media (a-MEM), albumin, fibroblast-growth factor and antibiotics, minced, incubated in collagenase-I at 37°C with shaker and centrifuged. Supernatant and pellets were separately cultured in proliferation medium on cell+ plates at 37°C with 5% CO 2 for 10 days. Cells were harvested by trypsinization, checked for viability, sterility, counts, flow-cytometry (CD45 - /90 + /73 + ), and differentiated into insulin-expressing cells using medium composed of DMEM, gene expressing up-regulators and antibiotics for 3 days. They were studied for transcriptional factors Pax-6, Isl-1, pdx-1 (immunofluorescence). C-peptide and insulin were measured by chemiluminescence. In vitro glucose sensitivity assay was carried out by measuring levels of insulin and C-peptide secretion in absence of glucose followed by 2 hours incubation after glucose addition. Results: Mean IS-AD-MSC quantum was 3.21 ml, cell count, 1.5 x10 3 cells/μl), CD45 - /90 + /73 + cells were 44.37% /25.52%. All of them showed presence of pax-6, pdx-1, and Isl-1. Mean C-Peptide and insulin levels were 0.36 ng/ml and 234 μU/ml, respectively, pre-glucose and 0.87 ng/ml and 618.3 μU/ml post-glucose additions. The mean rise in secretion levels was 2.42 and 2.65 fold, respectively. Conclusion: Insulin-secreting h-AD-MSC can be generated safely and effectively showing in vitro glucose responsive alteration in insulin and C-peptide secretion levels.
  8 2,155 423
REVIEW ARTICLES
Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link
Ranabir Salam, Achouba Singh Kshetrimayum, Reetu Keisam
March 2012, 16(7):12-19
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94248  
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.
  8 3,434 730
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of vildagliptin and fixed dose combination of vildagliptin and metformin on glycemic control and insulin dose over 3 months in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Paresh Ved, Samrat Shah
March 2012, 16(7):110-113
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94258  
Objective: Addition of vildagliptin to ongoing insulin therapy may help in terms of overall glycemic control as well as reduction in dose of insulin and weight. This study sought to evaluate the effect of vildagliptin and fixed dose combination (FDC) of vildagliptin and metformin in patients in ongoing insulin therapy for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: This was an open label, prospective, non-randomised, multicentric observational study. In this study 400 patients with T2DM on insulin were enrolled and allocated with the treatment of vildagliptin 50 mg in monotherapy and FDC of vildagliptin 50 mg and metformin strengths as 500/ 850 / 1000 mg. Baseline investigations included fasting blood glucose (FBG) and post prandial plasma glucose (PPPG) Estimation and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Results: The combined analysis was carried out on 300 completed patients in this study, who were treated with vildagliptin or FDC of vildagliptin and metformin. The difference in mean value of insulin dose (MID) showed a highly significant decrease (P <0.0001) from baseline to end of the treatment i.e. from 36.26 ± 18.21 to 26.87 ± 16.49 IU. A highly significant decrease (P <0.0001) in FBG from 194.94 ± 56.19 to 124.93 ± 30.11 mg/dl was observed. Similarly PPPG showed a highly significant (P <0.0001) decrease from baseline to end of the treatment i.e. from 287.60 mg/dl to 172.05 mg/dl and there was highly significant (P <0.0001) decrease in HbA1c i.e. from 9.01% to 7.65% respectively. At the same time, highly significant decrease (P <0.0001) in mean weight also observed from baseline to end of the treatment i.e. from 71.23 ± 11.06 kg to 70.06 ± 10.62 Kg. Conclusion: Addition of vildagliptin and FDC of vildagliptin and metformin is an effective strategy in glycemic control, reduction in dose of insulin and weight of patients suffering with T2DM.
  5 3,167 869
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ocular associations of metabolic syndrome
Rupali Chopra, Ashish Chander, Jubbin J Jacob
March 2012, 16(7):6-11
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94244  
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of diseases including central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and high blood pressure. People with metabolic syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, beyond the risk associated with individual components of the syndrome. The association of diabetes and hypertension with retinopathy, cataract, and raised intraocular pressure is well known. This review highlights the association of metabolic syndrome, including all its components, with various ocular conditions such as retinopathy, central retinal artery occlusion, cataracts, and raised intraocular pressure.
  5 2,633 593
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Metformin and sleep disorders
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
March 2012, 16(7):63-64
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94262  
Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug. Deterioration of sleep is an important unwanted side effect of metformin. Here, the authors review and present the details on metformin and sleep problem.
  4 2,227 391
CASE REPORTS
Insulin poisoning with suicidal intent
Abhay Gundgurthi, Sandeep Kharb, MK Dutta, R Pakhetra, MK Garg
March 2012, 16(7):120-122
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94254  
We report a 27-year-old paramedical lady with no known comorbidities, who presented with rapid-onset coma with hypoglycemia (plasma glucose at admission was 35 mg/dL). Clinical alertness suspected and confirmed the diagnosis of exogenous insulin administration probably with suicidal intent. During the course of her ICU stay, she developed bradycardia and hypotension which required ionotropic support. She remained in coma for 90 hours. A total of 470 g of dextrose was infused until she regained consciousness. No other complications of insulin overdose were observed during her stay in the hospital. Recovery was complete without any residual neurological deficits. Insulin administration should be kept in differential diagnosis when any case presents with coma and hypoglycemia, especially in paramedical personnel.
  4 7,443 486
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus
PG Sundararaman, GR Sridhar, V Sujatha, V Anita
March 2012, 16(7):70-73
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94266  
Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml) were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.
  4 1,702 476
REVIEW ARTICLES
Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults: From oral hypoglycemic agents to early insulin
Resham R Poudel
March 2012, 16(7):41-46
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94257  
Approximately 10% of phenotypic type 2 diabetics have islet autoantibodies and are referred to as having latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA), and they land on early sulfonylurea failure and require insulin. Diagnosing LADA has treatment implications because of high risk of progression to insulin dependency. But often there is delay in insulin therapy, as there are no recommendations for islet antibody testing in adult-onset diabetes currently. LADA clinical risk score can identify adults at high risk who may benefit from antibody testing. The optimal treatment of LADA is not established. Early insulin therapy helps to achieve good metabolic control and better long-term outcomes by preserving b-cells and endogenous C-peptide secretion. Sulfonylureas are better avoided as they exhaust b-cells; glitazones and exenatide have favorable outcomes, whereas metformin needs to be used with caution. Understanding LADA will also bring new windows in managing type 1 diabetes. Information acquisition was done by reviewing the medical literature published since 1987, with particular attention to the natural history, genetic factors, and treatment of LADA.
  4 6,107 1,248
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta stem on in vivo and in vitro glucose absorption and transport: Mechanism of its antidiabetic activity
AF Ajayi, RE Akhigbe, OM Adewumi, LO Okeleji, KB Mujaidu, SB Olaleye
March 2012, 16(7):91-96
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94265  
Objective: Extracts from various morphological parts of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta are widely used traditionally in folklore medicine in many parts of the world for the management, control, and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus. In order to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, the present study was undertaken to investigate its influence at varying doses on intestinal glucose absorption and transport in relation to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in rat experimental paradigms. Materials and Methods: The animals used were divided into four groups. Control animals received 2 ml of distilled water, while treated groups received 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg bw of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract per oral respectively daily for 21 days. Results: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta led to a significant decrease in glucose transport and absorption. It also caused significant reductions in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol. Biochemical changes observed were suggestive of dose dependence. Histopathological studies also showed increased sizes of β cells of the pancreas. Conclusion: The findings in these normoglycemic laboratory animals suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, possibly by reducing glucose absorption and transport, and enhancing the structural and functional abilities of the β cells. This is the first study to report the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta on intestinal glucose absorption. This effect could be attributed to its major bioactive principle, cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid. This study thus lends credence to the use of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta in the management of diabetes mellitus.
  3 2,501 375
Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes
Angadi Rajasab Nilofer, VS Raju, BR Dakshayini, Syed Ahmed Zaki
March 2012, 16(7):74-78
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94268  
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.
  3 3,255 878
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pathogenesis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy
Suyog Subhash Jain, Karuna Balwant Ramteke, Girish Tulsidas Raparti, Sanjay Kalra
March 2012, 16(7):20-26
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94250  
Enhanced understanding about the way human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and causes infection in humans has led to invention and use of newer more effective antiretroviral drugs. As treatment for HIV is long term, side effects of the antiretrovirals become an important area of research focus. Antiretrovirals can cause severe metabolic abnormalities, collectively known as HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. If untreated, these metabolic abnormalities have the potential to increase stroke and cardiac ischemia. Management includes choice of nonoffending drugs, switch over to less toxic drugs, hypolipidemics, oral antidiabetics including thiazolidinediones, metformin and growth hormone analogs and finally facial surgeries. Updated knowledge about HIV lipodystrophy, and the hormone-related drugs used to treat it, is essential for physicians and endocrinologists to be able to diagnose the patients and effectively treat them.
  3 2,752 540
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of serum vitamin B12 levels in type 1 diabetics attending a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary cross - sectional study
Ann Sarah Koshy, S Jaya Kumari, Vageesh Ayyar, Prasanna Kumar
March 2012, 16(7):79-82
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94270  
Aims and Objectives: To estimate serum vitamin B12 levels in type 1 diabetes and to evaluate the influence of duration of diabetes, diabetic control, and age on B 12 levels. Importance of Study: Vitamin B12 deficiency is known to be associated with autoimmune disorders. However, currently there is very limited and controversial data regarding the prevalence of B12 deficiency in type 1 diabetes in South Indian population. If our study demonstrates the presence of low serum B12 levels in type1 diabetes in our population, a recommendation for regular screening and supplementation of vitamin B12 could be considered in these patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross- sectional study. Ninety type 1 diabetic patients (44 males and 46 females) were randomly selected based on inclusion/ exclusion criteria from the diabetes registry at Bangalore Diabetes Centre. Serum vitamin B12 level and parameters for diabetic controls were estimated using fully automated methods. All statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Results: The study showed that 45.5% of the diabetics had low B12 using the manufacturer's cut - off of 180 pg/mL and 54% had low B12 using the published cut - off of 148 pmol/l (200pg/mL). There was no significant difference in B12 levels between males and females (mean difference = - 14.3: P > 0.05). The study did not demonstrate any significant correlation between vitamin B12 levels and age, duration of diabetes, and diabetes control (the r values being - 0.18, - 0.11, and - 0.08 respectively and the P-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Results of our study shows the presence of low serum B12 levels in type 1 diabetics. These findings merits further research on a larger population to investigate into the cause of deficiency and the benefit of B12 supplementation in these patients.
  2 2,098 452
Hyperglycemic emergencies in Indian patients with diabetes mellitus on pilgrimage to Amarnathji yatra
Mohd Ashraf Ganie, Satish Koul, Hilal A Razvi, Bashir Ahmed Laway, Abdul Hamid Zargar
March 2012, 16(7):87-90
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94267  
Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) represent two distinct metabolic derangements manifested by insulin deficiency and severe hyperglycemia, with estimated mortality rates of 2.5-9%. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) controlled by diet or oral agents, DKA does not occur unless there is significant severe stress such as severe sepsis, major surgery, trauma, etc. We observed many such emergencies occurring in pilgrims. Objective: We analyzed the data of 13 patients with DM admitted in our endocrine department with hyperglycemic emergencies during 2 years of the annual pilgrimage (yatra) to Amarnathji. Materials and Methods: We reviewed and analyzed the case records of 13 yatris with DM who were referred and admitted in our hospital with hyperglycemic emergencies during the yatra season (July-August) of 2006 and 2007. Results: Eleven of 13 had DKA and 1 each had HHS and hypoglycemia. After initial clinical assessment and blood sampling for blood counts, electrolytes, blood gases, urinalysis, chest radiography, and electrocardiography, these cases were managed with standard protocol published by American Diabetes Association (ADA) for the management of DKA and HHS. Average blood glucose was 466 mg/dl and nine subjects had moderate to severe ketonuria. All the cases, except one, were in stable condition at the time of discharge. Conclusion: High altitude, strenuous exertion of going uphill, withdrawal of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, starvation, sepsis, and alcohol intake were recorded as predisposing factors. Therefore, there is an immense need for institution of a special health education program to all the yatris before taking the endeavor.
  2 3,382 355
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Bromocriptine as a new therapeutic agent for peripartum cardiomyopathy
Sandeep Chopra, Prashant Paul Verghese, Jubbin J Jacob
March 2012, 16(7):60-62
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94261  
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a poorly understood, rare disorder in which left ventricular systolic dysfunction and symptoms of heart failure occur between the last month of pregnancy and the first 5 months postpartum. Recent data suggest that uncontrolled oxidative stress leads to the activation of the prolactin cleaving enzyme cathepsin D that in turn leads to an increase in a cleaved 16 kDa prolactin. This cleaved form that has an angiostatic and proapoptotic role appears to drive the disease by adversely impacting the endothelium and cardiomyocyte. Bromocriptine that reduces the prolactin production by dopamine agonist actions may improve outcomes in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy by eliminating the cleaved form of prolactin despite the activation of the cleaving enzyme. In limited case reports and proof of concept studies use of bromocriptine in the early stages has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy. However, larger randomized control study is still awaited.
  1 2,932 721
A grand dame with hidden aces: The non-diabetic uses of insulin
Asfandyar Khan Niazi, Shaharyar Khan Niazi
March 2012, 16(7):57-59
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94260  
This brief communication reviews the non-diabetic uses and utility of insulin. It highlights the lesser known uses in medicine, psychiatry, suregery and diagnostics that this versatile peptide has.
  1 3,475 496
EDITORIALS
Type 1 diabetes in children: Fighting for a place under the sun
KM Prasanna Kumar, Kishwar Azad, Bedwora Zabeen, Sanjay Kalra
March 2012, 16(7):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94241  
  1 3,078 635
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Awareness and attitude toward diabetes in the rural population of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India
Ashita Singh, Pratibha E Milton, Amrit Nanaiah, Prasanna Samuel, Nihal Thomas
March 2012, 16(7):83-86
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94269  
Background: India has the largest number of patients with diabetes in the world, accounting for more than 50 million subjects. There are limited studies on diabetes awareness, attitude, and prevalence in rural communities, especially in the northeastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A community-based survey using the STEPS questionnaire with recording of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, waist circumference, and height was conducted among the residents of Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. A door-to-door survey was conducted in each village, and members above the age of 25 years from each household were considered eligible to participate. Results and Conclusion: The awareness of diabetes in the study population was found to be as low as 21%. Majority of subjects (58%) had a normal BMI and adequate physical activity (88%). The prevalence of smoking (72%) and alcohol consumption (49%) was found to be very high amongst the study population. Blood glucose screening revealed that 13% had impaired fasting glucose and 6% had impaired glucose tolerance.
  1 4,093 716
REVIEW ARTICLES
Neuropsychiatric screening in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Sunil K Kota, Lalit K Meher, Sruti Jammula, S. V. S. Krishna, Siva K Kota, Kirtikumar D Modi
March 2012, 16(7):37-40
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94255  
Diabetes mellitus is considered to be one of the most psychologically demanding of the chronic medical illnesses and is often associated with several psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders can be a risk factor for, as well as a complication of, diabetes leading to bidirectional association between the two morbidities. Physicians caring for people with diabetes must be trained to recognize and manage comorbid psychiatric conditions that commonly occur. Our current article reviews the various screening procedures for effective evaluation of the neuropsychiatric illnesses coexisting with diabetes and other pertinent issues.
  1 1,539 350
CASE REPORTS
Type 1 renal tubular acidosis in a patient of Type 1 diabetes mellitus: Is it coincidence or coexistence?
Muzafar Naik, Tariq Bhat, Mubarik Naqash, Manzoor Wani, Nazir Dar, Younis Shah
March 2012, 16(7):114-116
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94251  
A 26-year-old male patient suffering from Type 1 diabetes mellitus got admitted with abdominal pain and high blood sugars. On further evaluation, he was found to have normal anion gap metabolic acidosis without ketonuria and urinary pH was alkaline. The patient was diagnosed as Type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA) (distal RTA) and was managed by alkali replacement in addition to control of blood sugars. The association of Type 1 RTA with Type 1 diabetes mellitus has been rarely reported in the literature. The association needs a different attention as diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis in such cases will be tricky. The case presented here is the first of its kind from our part of the world and second as far as English literature is concerned.
  - 2,021 317
Budd-Chiari syndrome in a patient of diabetic ketoacidosis
Arundhati Dasgupta, Uma Kaimal Saikia, Dipti Sharma, Bikash Choudhury
March 2012, 16(7):117-119
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94252  
We report a rare case of Budd-Chiari syndrome developing in a patient undergoing treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis. A 27-year-old female presented with newly detected Type 1 diabetes with sepsis in ketoacidosis. During the process of treatment, she developed pain abdomen, ascites, and pedal edema. Investigations revealed an alteration of liver function and imaging characteristics of acute on chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome. All known etiological factors for Budd-Chiari syndrome were negative. Diabetic ketoacidosis, being a severely dehydrated state often associated with sepsis, may precipitate an acute presentation of previously asymptomatic Budd-Chiari syndrome.
  - 1,364 268
EDITORIALS
Fixed dose combinations in diabetes: Indian innovation, Indian pride
Sanjay Kalra, Binode Kumar Sahay, Murlidhar S Rao
March 2012, 16(7):4-5
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94243  
  - 1,605 454
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Striae atrophicans: A mimic to Cushing's cutaneous striae
Sandeep Kharb, Abhay Gundgurthi, MK Dutta, MK Garg
March 2012, 16(7):123-123
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94240  
  - 1,499 248
Recurrent insulin injection abscesses: Atypical etiology
K. V. S. Hari Kumar, PK Banga, Roli Bansal, Richa Kalia
March 2012, 16(7):123-124
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94242  
  - 1,635 216
Nalidixic acid and diabetic ketoacidosis
Mohammad Arefi, Narges Tabrizchi
March 2012, 16(7):124-126
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94245  
  - 1,163 214
Emphysematous pyelonephritis: Presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis
Rakesh Pinninti, R Pandichelvan, KH Noorul Ameen
March 2012, 16(7):126-127
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94246  
  - 1,290 257
Status of periodontal health in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a teaching hospital of North India
Ritu Karoli, Jalees Fatima, Roshan Jafri, Zeba Siddiqi, Vaibhav Shukla
March 2012, 16(7):127-129
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94247  
  - 1,144 268
Hemichorea-hemiballismus as the presenting manifestation of nonketotic hyperglycemia in an adolescent with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
Ibraheem Khan, Chandra Kant, Anil Sanwaria, Alok Goyal
March 2012, 16(7):129-131
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94249  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Estimation of serum insulin, Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and C-peptide can help identify possible cardiovascular disease risk in thyroid disorder patients
Purvi Purohit
March 2012, 16(7):97-103
DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.94263  
Aim: We aimed at evaluating the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of thyroid disorder patients at diagnosis, using the traditional lipid profile, apo-B and apo-A1 in correlation with serum insulin and insulin resistance (IR) and C-peptide. Background: With an ever increasing incidence of CVD in most urban populations, there has been a demand for newer techniques that could help in the early detection of the risk of this disease complex. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 healthy controls and 150 hypothyroid and 70 hyperthyroid patients, coming for the first time to our OPDs. The patients were selected on the basis of symptomatology and serum T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) evaluations. They were then analyzed for body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-peptide, lipid profile and apo-B and -A1. Statistical analysis was done using Student's "t" test and Spearman's coefficient of correlation. Results: The hypothyroid patients presented with high BMI, diastolic hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, IR and raised serum C-peptide. There was highly significant correlation of serum insulin, HOMA-IR and C-peptide with lipid fractions and CVD risk ratios, T. chol/HDLc and apo-B/apo-A1, in hypothyroid patients. The hyperthyroid patients presented with systolic hypertension and a significant correlation of T. chol/HDLc with HOMA-IR. Hyperthyroid patients also had hyperinsulinemia, but reduced serum C-peptide levels. Conclusion: We conclude that the estimation of traditional lipid profile along with serum insulin, IR, C-peptide, apo-A1 and apo-B would not only help assess the thyroid status, but can also help in the early evaluation of a possible risk of CVD.
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