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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 309-315

Iodine status and its correlations with age, blood pressure, and thyroid volume in South Indian women above 35 years of age (Amrita Thyroid Survey)


1 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Podiatric Surgery, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India
2 Department of Biostatistics, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India
3 Department of Radiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Vadayath Usha Menon
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita Lane, Ponekkara PO, Kochi - 680 026, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.85584

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Background: Thyroid disorders are more commonly seen among females and the prevalence increases with age. There is no population data from India focusing on iodine levels and their correlations with thyroid volume and other factors in adult women. Aim: This study was designed to establish the iodine status and its relation with various factors including thyroid volume measured by ultrasound among the females of Kerala. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional house to house survey among the females above 35 years of age in a randomly selected urban area in Cochin Corporation, Kerala State, India. Selected subjects were interviewed, examined and blood and urine tests were done. Thyroid volume was calculated using ultrasound. Results: Among the 508 subjects who participated in the checkup, 471 subjects were included for analysis. Mean age was 50.3 + 10.7 years and 53.2% were postmenopausal. A total of 98% of the subjects were using iodized salt and median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 162.6 mcg/l. UIE had negative correlation with age and systolic blood pressure (BP), but had no correlation with thyroid volume (TV), thyroid nodularity, free thyroxine 4 (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or anti thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels. Iodine deficiency was more commonly seen in subjects with hypertension and also among postmenopausal females. Conclusions: This study showed that females > 35 years were iodine sufficient, though one third of the subjects had UIE levels less than the recommended level. Iodine levels had significant negative correlation with age and systolic BP and no correlation with thyroid volume or biochemical parameters. Iodine deficiency was significantly higher in subjects with new and known hypertension and this relation merits further evaluation.


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