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Table of Contents
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 472

Type 2 DM is not coronary artery disease equivalent

Department of Endocrinology, St. John's Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, India

Date of Web Publication5-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
Vageesh S Ayyar
Department of Endocrinology, St. John's Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore - 560 034
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.95718

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How to cite this article:
Ayyar VS. Type 2 DM is not coronary artery disease equivalent. Indian J Endocr Metab 2012;16:472

How to cite this URL:
Ayyar VS. Type 2 DM is not coronary artery disease equivalent. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Jul 23];16:472. Available from: https://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/3/472/95718


This letter comes in response to the article published in Jan-Feb 2012 issue by Sandeep Chopra and Soumia Peter titled "Screening for Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Type 2 DM: An evidence based review".

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the foremost complication of Type 2 DM. Major support to the concept that Type 2 DM is a CAD equivalent came from Haffner et al's study. [1] However this study had major pitfalls it study was not powered to look into CAD. Majority of the patients were hypertensive, most patients with diabetes had uncontrolled glycemia, and their lipids were not at target as per current standards. Subsequently one more study showed in fact patients with T2DM were at lower risk for cardiovascular outcomes compared to patients with established CAD. [2] Major clarification regarding this came from the Barbara et al.'s [3] study wherein they studied the influence of single and multiple risk factors on the 10-year cumulative incidence of fatal and nonfatal CAD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetics and non-diabetics. This study showed that CAD risk equivalence in diabetics depends on concomitant risk factors for CAD than on diabetic status alone. [3] A recent meta-analysis involving in excess of 45,000 patients did not support the hypothesis that diabetes is CAD equivalent. [4] Even DIAD study showed that cardiac event rates in diabetic subjects were low. [5] In fact it is the coronary artery status that determines the future cardiac event rate than the diabetic state per se. In epidemiological studies, diabetes was shown as CAD risk equivalent mainly because moderate-risk diabetic patients without significant CAD and very high-risk diabetic patients with significant CAD add up to a grand total of high-risk diabetic patients. [6] Even ADA recent guidelines do not recommend routine screening for CAD in asymptomatic diabetic patients, as it does not improve the outcomes as long as CVD risk factors are treated, and has level A of evidence. [7] Hence, it is not the diabetic status but the additional CAD risk factors which confer the CAD equivalent state in diabetic subjects. I feel CAD risk prevention strategy in diabetes subjects still should be based on the absolute risk rather than diabetic state alone.

   References Top

1.Haffner SM, Lehto S, Rönnemaa T, Pyörälä K, Laakso M. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998;339:229-34.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Evans JM, Wang J, Morris AD. Comparison of cardiovascular risk between patients with type 2 diabetes and those who had had a myocardial Infarction: Cross sectional and cohort studies. BMJ 2002;324:939-42.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Howard BV, Best LG, Galloway JM, Howard WJ, Jones K, Lee ET. Coronary heart disease risk equivalence in diabetes depends on concomitant risk factors. Diabetes Care 2006;29:391-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Bulugahapitiya U, Siyambalapitiya S, Sithole J, Idris I. Is diabetes a coronary risk equivalent? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2009;26:142-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Young LH, Wackers FJ, Chyun DA, Davey JA, Barrett EJ, Taillefer R, et al.; DIAD Investigators. Cardiac outcomes after screening for asymptomatic coronary artery disease in patients with Type 2Diabetes: The DIAD Study. JAMA 2009;301:1547-55.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Saely CH, Aczel S, Koch L, Schmid F, Marte T, Huber K, et al. Diabetes as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent: Before a change of paradigm? Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2010;17:94-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Position statement ADA. Standards of medical care in diabetes 2012. Diabetes Care 2012;35:S11-63.  Back to cited text no. 7


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