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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 552-557

A prospective assessment of dietary patterns in Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes who undertake fasting during Ramadan

1 Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
2 Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India
4 Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India

Correspondence Address:
Nihal Thomas
Department of Endocrinology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.98009

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Aims: The aim was to assess the dietary pattern during Ramadan season among type 2 diabetic Muslim subjects who underwent fasting and intensive dietary counseling. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 70 Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who undertook fasting during Ramadan and was part of a randomized control trial using pioglitazone published previously. All subjects were subjected to a dietary assessment and counseling at three stages, i.e., initiation of the study, mid-Ramadan and post-Ramadan, by a trained dietician. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-hour dietary recall method and the food frequency questionnaire. Diabetic diet sheets were dispensed to subjects based on their body mass index (BMI), daily activity, and needs. Results: The mean caloric intake between pre-Ramadan (before fasting) and mid-Ramadan (15 days after fasting) were 1506.80 kcal and 1614.29 (P = 0.001) respectively. The distribution of active components pre and during Ramadan were: carbohydrates (g) 260.76 and 265.35 g (P = 0.001), proteins (g) 43.64 and 46.19 (P = 0.001) and fat (g) was 32.88 and 44.16 (P = 0.0001) respectively. The percentage of energy from dietary carbohydrate prior to fasting (64.11 ± 6.73) and during fasting (68.41 ± 4.41) remained almost unchanged but statistically significant when compared at different intervals before and during fasting. Fat intake increased significantly during fasting (P = < 0.001). Conclusions: The dietary composition in a type 2 diabetic Muslim population who undertook fasting during Ramadan showed a mean increase in consumption of all components of diet during the period of fasting. Nutritional compliance during such a time seems to be difficult and warrants repeated counseling and regular follow-up to achieve targets.

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