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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 857-858

Relation between anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile among cardio-metabolically healthy subjects: A pilot study


Department of Physiology, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication6-Sep-2012

Correspondence Address:
Sumit Garg
Department of Physiology, Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Tamaka, Kolar - 563 101, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.100686

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How to cite this article:
Garg S, Vinutha S, Karthiyanee K, Nachal A. Relation between anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile among cardio-metabolically healthy subjects: A pilot study. Indian J Endocr Metab 2012;16:857-8

How to cite this URL:
Garg S, Vinutha S, Karthiyanee K, Nachal A. Relation between anthropometric measurements and serum lipid profile among cardio-metabolically healthy subjects: A pilot study. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 27];16:857-8. Available from: https://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/5/857/100686

Sir,

Excess body fatness is a risk factor associated with premature mortality, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Serum lipid levels as cardio-metabolic risk factor has been well known. [1] This study was done to correlate and understand the association between measures of adiposity like waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), skinfold thickness (SFT) and body mass index (BMI) with serum lipid levels and to determine the best predictor of serum lipid profile among them.

One-hundred subjects between 20 and 60 years of age attending the outpatient department of RL Jalappa Hospital, Kolar, were enrolled after obtaining clearance from Institutional Ethical committee and informed consent from them. Detailed history was taken and subjects with H/O diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, carcinoma, liver disease and on lipid-lowering agents suggestive of cardio-metabolic abnormality were excluded from the study.

Body weight was measured in kg by a mechanical scale to the nearest kg. Height was measured to the nearest one cm. BMI (kg/m 2 ) was calculated using Quitelet's index.

WC was measured midway between the lowest rib and the iliac crest and hip circumference at the level of the greater trochanters with legs close together, using a non-stretchable measuring tape by average of three measurements nearest to 0.5 cm. The WHR equals WC divided by hip circumference.

SFT in mm was assessed at seven sites: biceps, triceps, abdomen, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh and calf, using digital skin caliper whereby a pinch of skin is precisely measured by caliper at these sites to determine the subcutaneous fat layer thickness. General guidelines for using total sum (in millimeters) of the seven main skin fold sites [Table 1]: [2]
Table 1: General guidelines for using total sum (in millimeters) of the seven main skinfold sites


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Lipid profile of the subjects was done in biochemistry laboratory of RL Jalappa Hospital, Kolar, using Vitrow's 250 Autoanalyser (Johnson & Johnson, Rochester, New York, USA).

WC, BMI, WHR and SFT were correlated individually with lipid profile using Pearson's correlation analysis using SPSS version 14.

The mean age in the study group was 39.3 ± 10.5 years and the proportion of males and females was 67% and 37%, respectively.

All parameters of lipid profile namely serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride and LDL/HDL ratio except high density lipoprotein (HDL) had significant positive correlation with all parameters of anthropometric measures as shown in [Table 2]. HDL had negative correlation with all anthropometric measures, which was statistically significant only with WC and WHR and not with SFT and BMI. Correlations were stronger for WC compared with other anthropometric measurements.
Table 2: Pearson's Correlations (r values) between lipid profile and anthropometric measurements.


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Pearson's Correlations (r values) between lipid profile and anthropometric measurements [Table 2].

All the anthropometric variables had significant positive correlation with each other. According to the present study, WC best correlates with all the parameters of lipid profile. An increased WHR may reflect both a relative abundance of abdominal fat (increased WC) or a relative lack of gluteal muscle (decreased hip circumference), questioning its reliability. [3]

SFT has limitations like skin fold calipers cannot open wide enough to measure total fat thickness, thus grossly under estimates body fat percentage in the obese population, and has wide observer bias, requiring proper skills in skin fold measurements. [4]

BMI does not account for factors such as body fat distribution, specifically abdominal obesity, and cannot distinguish between lean and fat body mass. [1]

WC reflects abdominal fat, which contains higher amounts of visceral fat. Visceral fat is made by liver, turned into cholesterol, and released into the bloodstream where it forms plaque on the artery walls, resulting in high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. [5]

The results of this study are consistent with previous studies that report a stronger association between anthropometric measures accounting for abdominal adiposity like WC and cardiovascular disease risk factors. [1],[3],[5]

This study revealed that all the anthropometric measures were significantly correlated with lipid profile. However, WC was the best predictor of lipid profile and hence the most important risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases. It is a very simple, economic and less time-consuming procedure, which can be used as a screening test to predict the cardio-metabolic risk of an individual. Further studies with larger population are needed to quantify the results for application to community health lifestyle modifications.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors acknowledge the support of the biochemistry department for providing lab Reports of lipid profile of study subjects.

 
   References Top

1.Brenner DR, Tepylo K, Eny KM, Cahill LE, Sohemy AE. Comparison of body mass index and waist circumference as predictors of cardiometabolic health in a population of young Canadian adults. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2010;2:28.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Skinfold Measurement [Internet] 2010. Available from: http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/skinfolds.htm. [Updated 25 Jun 2010; Cited 2010 Oct 8].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.. Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Morris RW, Whincup PH. Measures of adiposity in the identification of metabolic abnormalities in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:1313-21.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Doyle AJ. The Exercise and Physical Fitness [homepage on the Internet]. Georgia: Georgia State University; Body Composition. [About 5 screens]. Available from: http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwfit/bodycomp.html#Skinfold. [Updated 1998 Mar 18; cited 2011 oct 18].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Menke A, Muntner P, Wildman RP, Reynolds K, He J. Measures of adiposity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:785-95.  Back to cited text no. 5
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