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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 496-500

Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the South India cohort of the A 1 chieve study


1 Swamy Diabetes Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Diabetology, Lakeshore Hospital and Research Center Ltd, Kadavanthra, Kochi, Kerala, India

Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2013

Correspondence Address:
S Nallaperumal
Swamy Diabetes Centre Chennai
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.122095

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   Abstract 

Background: The A 1 chieve, a multicentric (28 countries), 24-week, non-interventional study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care across four continents. Materials and Methods: Data was collected at baseline, at 12 weeks and at 24 weeks. This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from South India. Results: A total of 9273 patients were enrolled in the study. Four different insulin analogue regimens were used in the study. Patients had started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart (n = 7217), insulin detemir (n = 1001), insulin aspart (n = 734), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 117) and other insulin combinations (n = 189). At baseline glycaemic control was poor for both insulin naïve (mean HbA 1 c: 9.2%) and insulin user (mean HbA 1 c: 9.1%) groups. After 24 weeks of treatment both the groups showed improvement in HbA 1 c (insulin naïve: −1.6%, insulin users: −1.3%). SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients. Conclusion: Starting or switching to insulin analogues was associated with improvement in glycaemic control with a low rate of hypoglycaemia.

Keywords: A 1 chieve study, insulin analogues, South India, type 2 diabetes mellitus


How to cite this article:
Nallaperumal S, Kannampilly J. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the South India cohort of the A 1 chieve study. Indian J Endocr Metab 2013;17, Suppl S2:496-500

How to cite this URL:
Nallaperumal S, Kannampilly J. Clinical experience with insulin detemir, biphasic insulin aspart and insulin aspart in people with type 2 diabetes: Results from the South India cohort of the A 1 chieve study. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 Jan 16];17, Suppl S2:496-500. Available from: https://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/8/496/122095


   Introduction Top


62.4 million Indians were reported to have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) putting India on the forefront of diabetic epidemic across globe. [1],[2] Fear of hypoglycaemia and gain in body weight act as barriers for initiation of insulin therapy. [3] Modern insulin analogues are a convenient new approach or tool to glycaemic control, associated with low number of hypoglycaemia and favourable weight change. [4] A 1 chieve, a multinational, 24-week, non-interventional study, assessed the safety and effectiveness of insulin analogues in people with T2DM (n = 66,726) in routine clinical care. [5] This short communication presents the results for patients enrolled from South India.


   Materials and Methods Top


Please refer to editorial titled: The A 1 chieve study: Mapping the Ibn Battuta trail.


   Results Top


A total of 9273 patients were enrolled in the study. The patient characteristics for the entire cohort divided as insulin-naïve and insulin users is shown in the [Table 1]. Glycaemic control at baseline was poor in this population. The majority of patients (77.8%) started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart. Other groups were insulin detemir (n = 1001), insulin aspart (n = 734), basal insulin plus insulin aspart (n = 117) and other insulin combinations (n = 189).
Table 1: Overall demographic data

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After 24 weeks of treatment, overall hypoglycaemic events reduced from 0.8 events/patient-year to 0.1 events/patient-year in insulin naive group and from 2.6 events/patient-year to 0.7 events/patient-year in insulin user group. The hypoglycaemia incidence in insulin naive group at 24 weeks was lower than that observed in insulin users at baseline. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events did not occur in any of the study patients. Blood pressure decreased whereas overall lipid profile and quality of life improved at week 24 in the cohort [Table 2] and [Table 3].
Table 2: Overall safety data

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Table 3: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in the total cohort [Table 4].
Table 4: Overall efficacy data

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Biphasic insulin aspart ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 7217 patients started on biphasic insulin aspart ± OGLD, of which 5995 (83.1%) were insulin naïve and 1222 (16.9%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of starting or switching to biphasic insulin aspart, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 0.2 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group and from 2.2 events/patient-year to 0.1 events/patient-year in insulin users group. Body weight decreased and quality of life improved after 24 weeks of treatment [Table 5] and [Table 6].
Table 5: Biphasic insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 6: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to biphasic insulin aspart for both insulin naïve and insulin user groups [Table 7].
Table 7: Biphasic insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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Basal + insulin aspart ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 117 patients started on basal + insulin aspart ± OGLD, of which 58 (49.6%) were insulin naïve and 59 (50.4%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of starting or switching to biphasic insulin aspart, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 2.7 events/patient-year to 0.6 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group and from 4.9 events/patient-year to 1.4 events/patient-year in insulin users group. Body weight decreased and quality of life improved after 24 weeks [Table 8] and [Table 9].
Table 8: Basal+insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 9: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to basal + insulin aspart ± OGLDs for both insulin naïve and insulin user groups [Table 10].
Table 10: Basal+insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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Insulin detemir ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 1001 patients started on insulin detemir ± OGLD, of which 865 (86.4%) were insulin naïve and 136 (13.6%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of starting or switching to biphasic insulin aspart, hypoglycaemic events reduced from 1.0 events/patient-year to 0.2 events/patient-year in insulin naïve group and from 2.3 events/patient-year to 0.7 events/patient-year in insulin users group. A decrease in body weight and improvement in quality of life was observed at the end of the study [Table 11] and [Table 12].
Table 11: Insulin detemir±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 12: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to insulin detemir ± OGLDs for both insulin-naïve and insulin user groups [Table 13].
Table 13: Insulin detemir±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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Insulin aspart ± OGLD

Of the total cohort, 734 patients started on insulin aspart ± OGLD, of which 583 (79.4%) were insulin naïve and 151 (20.6%) were insulin users. After 24 weeks of starting or switching to insulin aspart, overall hypoglycaemia decreased from 0.6 events/patient-year to 0.0 events/patient-year in insulin naive group and from 2.7 events/patient-year to 0.5 events/patient-year in insulin users group. A decrease in body weight and improvement in quality of life was noted at 24 weeks [Table 14] and [Table 15].
Table 14: Insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug safety data

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Table 15: Insulin dose

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All parameters of glycaemic control improved from baseline to study end in those who started on or were switched to insulin aspart ± OGLDs for both insulin naïve and insulin user groups [Table 16].
Table 16: Insulin aspart±oral glucose-lowering drug efficacy data

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   Conclusion Top


Our study reports improved glycaemic control (HbA 1 c, FPG, PPPG) and quality of life following 24 weeks of treatment with any of the insulin analogues (Biphasic insulin aspart; basal + insulin aspart; insulin detemir; insulin aspart) with or without OGLD. SADRs including major hypoglycaemic events or episodes did not occur in any of the study patients after 24 week of treatment. A small weight reduction was noted for all four regimens. Though the findings are limited by number of patients, still the trend indicates that insulin analogues can be considered effective and possess a safe profile for treating type 2 diabetes in South India.

 
   References Top

1.Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1047-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Shetty P. Public health: India's diabetes time bomb. Nature 2012;485:S14-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Korytkowski M. When oral agents fail: Practical barriers to starting insulin. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26 Suppl 3:S18-24.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Hirsch IB. Insulin analogues. N Engl J Med 2005;352:174-83.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Shah SN, Litwak L, Haddad J, Chakkarwar PN, Hajjaji I. The A1chieve study: A 60 000-person, global, prospective, observational study of basal, meal-time, and biphasic insulin analogs in daily clinical practice. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;88 Suppl 1:S11-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10], [Table 11], [Table 12], [Table 13], [Table 14], [Table 15], [Table 16]


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