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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 70-76

Arterial stiffness in obese children: Role of adiposity and physical activity

Department of Growth and Pediatric Endocrinology, Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Anuradha V Khadilkar
Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, 32, Sassoon Road, Pune - 411 001, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: Studyfunded by Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.126565

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Objective: To explore association of adiposity and physical activity with arterial stiffness and to propose optimal waist circumference cutoffs, corresponding to 90 th percentile of NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for Indian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Data on weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity and right Carotid artery Intima-Media-Thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), elasticity modulus (Ep), stiffness index(β), arterial compliance (AC) were assessed in 250 children (72 normal-weight and 178 overweight/obese) aged 6-17 years from Pune city, India. Body composition was measured using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Total, 37.1% normal-weight and 98.2% overweight/obese children had high adiposity (>95 th body fat percentile). Positive association of PWV and Ep (r = 0.5) also β(r = 0.25) with BMI (Body Mass Index), waist circumference and body fat (P < 0.05) was observed. Physical activity was inversely associated with PWV (r =-0.2), β(r =-0.13), Ep (r =-0.12) and positively with AC (r = 0.12) (P < 0.05). PWV significantly increased with increasing body fat for each tertile of physical activity (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed waist circumference, BMI, body fat and physical activity as independent associates for PWV after adjusting for age (P < 0.05). The cutoff of waist circumference yielding sensitivity and specificity for predicting the risk of high PWV was (−0.43, −0.44) for boys and girls with sensitivity in boys (girls) of 78% (87%) and specificity in boys (girls) 51% (70%). The observed cutoffs are less than the NHANES-III cutoff values of waist circumference for 90 th percentiles according to age and sex. Conclusion: High adiposity and low physical activity are adversely related to arterial stiffness in Indian children.

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