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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 159-165

Type 1 diabetes and osteoporosis: A review of literature

1 Department of Rheumatology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado, CO, USA

Correspondence Address:
Pooja Dhaon
Department of Rheumatology, King George Medical University, Lucknow - 226 018, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.129105

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With better care and intensive insulin therapy, microvascular complications have reduced and longevity has increased in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Therefore, there is a need to change the focus from microvascular complications to cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Though number of studies from other parts of the world show that patients with T1DM are at increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures, there is a paucity of data from India. A number of factors and mechanisms affecting bone health in patients with T1DM have been proposed. The main defect in genesis of osteoporosis is osteoblastic function, rather than osteoclastic overfunction. Assessment of bone mineral density by dual X-ray absorptiometry and other risk factors for osteoporosis, as a part of diagnostic procedure can help to design tailored treatment plans. A physically active healthy lifestyle, prevention of diabetic complications and adequate calcium and vitamin D supplementation are the mainstay for prevention of osteoporosis. Treatment of osteoporosis is not evidence based but it is proposed to be similar to osteoporosis associated with other conditions. Bisphosphonates are the mainstay for treatment of osteoporosis in patients with T1DM. However, more studies are needed to make definitive guidelines on prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with T1DM.

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