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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 608-616

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the metabolic syndrome: Consequences of a dual threat


1 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu; Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Bavdhan, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Nihal Thomas
Professor and Head, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Vice Principal (Research), Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.139212

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The metabolic syndrome is found to be more frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The presence of inflammatory markers in circulation, sputum, and broncho-alveolar fluid suggest systemic inflammation is one of the potential mechanisms responsible for both COPD and metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity, skeletal muscle dysfunction, hypogonadism, and steroid use are also important causes of the metabolic syndrome in COPD. Obesity and insulin resistance is found to be more common in mild to moderate stages (I and II) of COPD. Patients with COPD and the metabolic syndrome have increase risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. This review describes in details the various components of metabolic syndrome and its impact on long outcomes in COPD patients.


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