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REVIEW
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 340-346

Anti-thyroid drugs in pediatric Graves' disease


1 Department of Endocrinology, Providence Endocrine and Diabetes Specialty Centre, Kerala, India
2 Department of Pediatric Emergency and PICU, Kamakshi Memorial Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Mathew John
Providence Endocrine and Diabetes Specialty Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.152766

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Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children. Most children and adolescents are treated with anti-thyroid drugs as the initial modality. Studies have used Methimazole, Carbimazole and Propylthiouracil (PTU) either as titration regimes or as block and replacement regimes. The various studies of anti-thyroid drug (ATD) treatment of Graves' disease in pediatric patients differ in terms of the regimes, remission rate, duration of therapy for adequate remission, follow up and adverse effects of ATD. Various studies show that lower thyroid hormone levels, prolonged duration of treatment, lower levels of TSH receptor antibodies, smaller goiter and increased age of child predicted higher chance of remission after ATD. A variable number of patients experience minor and major adverse effects limiting initial and long term treatment with ATD. The adverse effects of various ATD seem to more in children compared to that of adults. In view of liver injury including hepatocellular failure need of liver transplantation associated with PTU, the use has been restricted in children. The rate of persistent remission with ATD following discontinuation is about 30%. Radioactive iodine therapy is gaining more acceptance in older children with Graves's disease in view of the limitations of ATD. For individual patients, risk-benefit ratio of ATD should be weighed against benefits of radioactive iodine therapy and patient preferences.


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