Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Contacts | Advertise | Login 
Search Article 
Advanced search 
  Users Online: 1344 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 667-672

Association of low educational status with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: Jaipur diabetes registry-1

1 Department of Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, Galaxy Specialty Centre, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Surendra Kumar Sharma
Department of Endocrinology, Galaxy Specialty Centre, Ajmer Road, Sodala, Jaipur - 302 006, Rajasthan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.163206

Rights and Permissions

Objective: To determine the association of educational status (ES), as a marker of socioeconomic status, with the prevalence of microvascular complications in diabetes. Methods: Successive patients (n = 1214) presenting to our centre were evaluated for sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical, and therapeutic variables. Subjects were classified according to ES into Group 1 (illiterate, 216); Group 2 (<primary, 537), Group 3 (<higher secondary, 312), and Group 4 (any college, 149). Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Mean age of patients was 52 ± 10 years, duration of diabetes 7 ± 7 years, and 55% were men. Prevalence of various risk factors was smoking/tobacco 25.5%, obesity body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 64.0%, abdominal obesity 63.4%, hypertension 67.5%, high fat diet 14.5%, low fruits/vegetables 31.8%, low fibre intake 60.0%, high salt diet 16.9%, physical inactivity 27.5%, coronary, or cerebrovascular disease 3.0%, and microvascular disease (peripheral, ocular or renal) in 20.7%. Microvascular disease was significantly greater in illiterate (25.9%) and low (23.6%) compared to middle (15.0%) and high (14.7%) ES groups (P < 0.05). Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that in illiterate and low ES groups respectively, prevalence of smoking/tobacco use (odds ratio 3.84, confidence intervals 2.09-7.05 and 2.15, 1.36-3.41); low fruit/vegetable (2.51, 1.53-4.14 and 1.99, 1.30-3.04) and low fibre intake (4.02, 2.50-6.45 and 1.78, 1.23-2.59) was greater compared to high ES. Poor diabetes control (HbA1c >8.0%) was significantly greater in illiterate (38.0%), low (46.0%) and middle (41.0%) compared to high (31.5%) ES subjects (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a greater prevalence of the microvascular disease in illiterate and low ES diabetes patients in India. This is associated with the higher prevalence of smoking/tobacco use, poor quality diet and sub-optimal diabetes control.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded237    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal