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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 31-33

Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights

Professor of Medicine and Professor and Head of Endocrinology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Dhanvantri Nagar, Gorimedu, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashok Kumar Das
Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Dhanvantri Nagar, Gorimedu, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.155372

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana).T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR) was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

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