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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 44-46

Key elements of successful intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes

Consultant Diabetologist and Endocrine and Metabolic Physician at Diabetes Care and Hormone Clinic, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Banshi Saboo
Dia Care, 1 and 2 Gandhi Park, Nr. Nehru Nagar Cross Road, Ambawadi, Ahmedabad - 380 015, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.155395

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An intensified diabetes management approach (including increased education, monitoring, and contact with diabetes team) should be used for adolescents and also for younger children if glycaemic control is not achieved by insulin therapy. Treatment options may include increased frequency of injections (e.g. the patients on 2 bolus may require 3 or 4 bolus injections), change in the type of basal and/or bolus insulin depending on multiple times monitoring for adolescents and for younger children, and change to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy. Results of epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications (EDIC) Research Group, where the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial patients were further followed up almost for a period of 7 years or more showed that intensive therapy significantly reduced and maintained glycated hemoglobin with relative risk reduction of microvascular complications in the intensive therapy group. In addition, intensive treatment reduced the risk of any cardiovascular disease (CVD) event by 42% and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from CVD by 57%. The reduction of microvascular and macrovascular events in the intensively-treated group persisted due to the "legacy effect" or "metabolic memory" of early intensive glycemic control. The main advantage of intensive insulin therapy is that it reduces the rate of diabetes complications, in the long run. Furthermore, it offers flexibility as the doses can be adjusted according to the activity and food consumed. The main disadvantage of intensive insulin therapy is the risk of hypoglycemia especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus and weight gain.

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