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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 55-57

Diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents

Professor of Paediatric Endocrinology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health and Senior Consultant in Paediatric Endocrinology Sagar Hospitals, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
P Raghupathy
Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health Hospital, South Hospital Complex, Near NIMHANS, Hombegowda Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.155403

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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is considered to be a common presentation of both type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. DKA arises due to lack of adequate insulin in the body. Insulin stops the use of fat as an energy source by inhibiting the peptide hormone glucagon. Without insulin, glucagon levels rise resulting in the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue, as well as amino acids from muscle cells. Neurological observations should be made for warning signs and symptoms of cerebral edema, and capillary blood glucose concentration should be measured on an hourly basis. Every 2-4 h electrolytes, blood gases, and beta-hydroxybutyrate should be measured. Cerebral edema occurs in 0.5-0.9% of all episodes of DKA. It is considered to be a major cause of death in childhood DKA. Treatment of cerebral edema should be prompt and immediate. Successful DKA management in children depends upon swift diagnosis, meticulous monitoring of clinical and biochemical parameters with prompt intervention.

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