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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 68-70

Initiating insulin therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Apollo Centre for Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Subhash Kumar Wangnoo
Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi Mathura Road, New Delhi - 110 076
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.155406

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The primary clinical goals to be achieved with insulin initiation are elimination of ketosis and hyperglycemia with prevention of chronic complications. Insulin therapy is the mainstay in management of type 1 diabetes, which should be aimed at achieving good glycemic control, with achievement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) <7.5%, pre-meal self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) of 90-130 mg/dL, bed time SMBG of 100-140 mg/dL, mean blood glucose level of 120-160 mg/dL and no ketonuria. Two classes of insulin are available for use in T1DM viz. bolus/prandial insulins (rapid-acting insulins and short-acting insulins) and basal insulins (intermediate-acting insulin and long-acting insulin). Insulin glargine and glulisine can be used in children above 6 years, lispro in children above 3 years and detemir and aspart in children above 2 years. The caution for hypoglycemia should be exercised while prescribing them. Degludec is currently not approved for pediatric use. The initial insulin regimen should comprise of ≥2 daily bolus and ≥1 basal insulin injections. Insulin intensification would be required if the initial regimen fails, which can be achieved by increasing frequency of long and rapid acting insulin analogues. The American Diabetes Association guidelines recommend HbA1c targets of <8.0% for children <6 years of age, ≤7.5% for children 6 to 12 years of age, and ≤7.0% for adolescents, 12-18 years of age. However, the evidence is now in favor of a single target HbA1c of ≤7.5% for all children and adolescents <19 years of age.

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