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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84-91

Chronic sub-clinical inflammation in the abdominal adipose tissue – Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines and their link with insulin resistance in metabolically obese South Indians: Across-sectional observational study

1 Internal Medicine and Diabetes, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India
2 Faculty of Medicine, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Medicine, JSS Medical College, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, JSS Medical College, JSS University, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
M Premanath
Prem Health Care, 671, Nrupatunga Road, M-Block, Kuvempunagar, Mysore - 570 023, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.172244

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Objective: To measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (AN) in obese South Indian subjects and to ascertain whether or not a causal role could be ascribed to these cytokines in the development of insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Forty obese and forty nonobese volunteers of both genders were recruited. Parameters such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were evaluated. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), lipid profile, TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP, and AN levels were measured. IR was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment-IR method. Abdominal adiposity was measured by ultrasonography. The results were statistically evaluated by appropriate tests. Results: BMI, WC, and visceral fat were high in the obese group. Females had higher subcutaneous fat in both groups. HbA1C was marginally high in the obese group ( P = 0.014). IR was high in all the groups, obese males showing higher values (not significant[NS]). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were high in the obese group ( P = 0.028, P = 0.003). TNF-α was high in obese males (NS), IL-6 was high in both groups, higher in nonobese females (NS), hs-CRP was high in both groups, higher in females of both groups (NS). AN was high in females of both groups ( P = 0.002). Conclusions: In this study on South Indian subjects, proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and hs-CRP, despite being high, did not show any causal correlation either with abdominal obesity or with IR. TNF-α being normal showed some correlation which was inconsistent. Even the anti-inflammatory adipokine, AN did not show any correlation with IR. Cytokines had an inconsistent correlation with the components of metabolic syndrome hence were not useful.

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