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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 9-21

Diabetes insipidus: The other diabetes

1 Bharti Hospital and BRIDE, Karnal, Haryana, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Managing Director, TOTALL Diabetes Hormone Institute, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
4 Consultant Endocrinologist, CARE Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
5 Department of Endocrinology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
6 GD Diabetes Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal; Sun Valley Diabetes and Endocrine Research Centre, Guwahati, Assam, India
7 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism and Vice-Principal (Research), Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
8 Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India
9 Bombay Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
10 Lead Medical, Asia Pacific region, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Harshad Malve
Ferring Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., 24th Floor, Sunshine Towers, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar (West), Mumbai - 400 013, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.172273

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Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a hereditary or acquired condition which disrupts normal life of persons with the condition; disruption is due to increased thirst and passing of large volumes of urine, even at night. A systematic search of literature for DI was carried out using the PubMed database for the purpose of this review. Central DI due to impaired secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) could result from traumatic brain injury, surgery, or tumors whereas nephrogenic DI due to failure of the kidney to respond to AVP is usually inherited. The earliest treatment was posterior pituitary extracts containing vasopressin and oxytocin. The synthetic analog of vasopressin, desmopressin has several benefi ts over vasopressin. Desmopressin was initially available as intranasal preparation, but now the oral tablet and melt formulations have gained significance, with benefits such as ease of administration and stability at room temperature. Other molecules used for treatment include chlorpropamide, carbamazepine, thiazide diuretics, indapamide, clofibrate, indomethacin, and amiloride. However, desmopressin remains the most widely used drug for the treatment of DI. This review covers the physiology of water balance, causes of DI and various treatment modalities available, with a special focus on desmopressin.

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