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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 531-535

Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

1 Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 St. Martha's Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Ratna Memorial Hospital, Maharashtra Medical Foundation, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Anuradha A Khadilkar
Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, 32 Sassoon Road, Pune - 411 001, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2230-8210.183473

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Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life.

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