|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 684-689
Relationship of levels of Vitamin D with flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery in patients of myocardial infarction and healthy control: A case-control study
Sarthak Malik1, Subhash Giri2, SV Madhu2, Vinita Rathi3, BD Banerjee4, Nikhil Gupta5
1 Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Radio diagnostic, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
5 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||14-Sep-2016|
Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death worldwide. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased risk of adverse CV events. Vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for endothelial dysfunction which in turn affects the onset and progression of coronary artery disease and its risk factors, directly or indirectly through various mechanisms. Materials and Methods: It was case-control study. A total of 50 cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (aged 40-60 years), admitted to medicine emergency/CCU, were taken as per ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines. An equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were also taken. Risk factors of AMI, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), and 25(OH)D levels were studied in all cases and controls. Correlation was also studied between FMD and 25(OH)D. Results: The mean values of FMD were 18.86 ± 5.39% and 10.35 ± 4.90% in controls and cases, respectively (P < 0.05). The endothelial dilatation after glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) was also studied and was found to be 26.175 ± 4.25% and 18.80 ± 5.72% in controls and cases, respectively (P < 0.05). The mean levels of 25(OH)D in controls and cases were 25.45 ± 12.17 and 14.53 ± 8.28 ng/ml, respectively. In this study, 56% of subjects were Vitamin D deficient, 25% were Vitamin D insufficient, and only 19% had Vitamin D in normal range. A positive correlation coefficient was found between FMD and 25(OH) Vitamin D levels (r = 0.841, P < 0.01). In this study, a positive correlation coefficient was also found between endothelial dilatation after GTN and 25(OH)D levels (r = 0.743, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In this study, it was found that FMD was markedly impaired in patients of AMI when compared to controls. It was also found that majority of the study population was Vitamin D deficient; however, the deficiency was more severe in patients of AMI. We also found out that FMD was positively correlated (r = 0.841) to the deficiency state of Vitamin D in all the study subjects.
Keywords: Brachial artery, case-control, flow-mediated dilatation, myocardial infarction, Vitamin D
|How to cite this article:|
Malik S, Giri S, Madhu S V, Rathi V, Banerjee B D, Gupta N. Relationship of levels of Vitamin D with flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery in patients of myocardial infarction and healthy control: A case-control study. Indian J Endocr Metab 2016;20:684-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Malik S, Giri S, Madhu S V, Rathi V, Banerjee B D, Gupta N. Relationship of levels of Vitamin D with flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery in patients of myocardial infarction and healthy control: A case-control study. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Nov 25];20:684-9. Available from: https://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2016/20/5/684/190558
| Introduction|| |
With aging, there is an increase in cardiovascular risk which is mostly attributable to vascular endothelial dysfunction. As already known, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial-dependent dilatation. Consistent with this, FMD is lower in older compared to young adults.
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cardiovascular death, and overall mortality. ,, Various mechanisms by which Vitamin D deficiency leads to such catastrophic events include: 
- Endothelial dysfunction which in turn affects the onset and progression of coronary artery disease and its risk factors
- Vitamin D can inhibit various aspects of inflammation (key pathogenic mechanism in atherosclerosis)
- Vitamin D can exert an anti-proliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle cells and myocardial cell hypertrophy and proliferation.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Aims and objectives
The study was a case-control, cross-sectional study, carried out from November 2011 to April 2013 in the Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Radio-diagnosis at University College of Medical Sciences and associated Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi.
- To compare the levels of Vitamin D among patients of myocardial infarction with age- and sex-matched controls
- To compare the levels of FMD of brachial artery among patients of myocardial infarction with age- and sex-matched controls
- To study the relationship of levels of Vitamin D with FMD of the brachial artery in cases and controls.
Fifty cases of myocardial infarction (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) as per ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines aged 40-60 years, who got admitted to medicine emergency/CCU, were taken.
Patients fulfilling these criteria (ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines) were labeled as cases (n = 50).  An equal number of age- and sex-matched controls without coronary artery disease were enrolled. Controls were without any history of coronary heart disease and were similar for smoking and hypertension status as they were confounding variables which could affect Vitamin D and FMD. Cases and controls met the exclusion criteria.
- Patients with a family history of premature (<40 years) CAD
- Patient with acute or chronic liver disease (serum aminotransferase more than threefold [more than 120 IU/l]), acute or chronic renal disease (serum creatinine level more than 1.5 mg/dl), acute or chronic infectious diseases, and malignancy
- Patients with congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathies, bronchial asthma, and chronic allergic conditions, Buerger's disease, systemic sclerosis, and Raynaud's disease
- Patients with diabetes mellitus were excluded from the study
- Patients with history of intake of hormone replacement therapy
- Patients with history of intake of Vitamin D or calcium supplements within 6 weeks of study
- Patients with history of intake of drugs affecting Vitamin D metabolism within 6 weeks of study
- Patients who were obese (body mass index [BMI] >30) were excluded from the study. Males with waist circumference more than 102 cm and females with waist circumference more than 88 cm were excluded from the study
- Patients with thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism) were excluded from the study.
Vitamin D levels
- Written informed consent was taken from cases and controls
- A detailed pro forma including the chief complaints, history of presenting complaints, history, family history, and dietary history was filled. Detailed examination including general physical examination, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and systemic examination was done
- Venous blood samples were collected for the investigations including Vitamin D levels within 24 h of admission.
Approximately 3 ml of venous blood sample was withdrawn in a plain vial after an overnight fast. Samples were stored at minus 20°C. 25(OH) Vitamin D level was measured from the serum by commercially available DiaSorin 25(OH) Vitamin D 125I RIA Kit (DiaSorin, Stillwater, Minnesota 55082-0285, USA). 
FMD  was measured using Philips HD7XE color Doppler ultrasound machine. A linear array transducer with a frequency range 7-12 MHz was used to acquire high-quality images with good resolution for analysis.
Considering 2.3 and 1.8 as standard deviation (SD) in Vitamin D levels in cases and controls, α = 0.05 and power = 90%, to estimate a difference of 1.5 units in Vitamin D levels, a sample of forty cases was required in each group. Adding 20% nonresponders, we get 48, i.e., fifty minimum subjects were taken in each group.
Data were expressed as mean ± SD unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare cases and control group. Correlation between FMD and Vitamin D was done by correlation coefficient analysis. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
| Results|| |
In this study, fifty cases of AMI (Group 1) were recruited, and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls (Group 0) aged 40-60 years were also recruited. Demographic and cardiovascular risk profile of the study cohort is shown in [Table 1]. The number of males and females in each group were 44 and 6, respectively. The number of smokers was 37 (74%) among the cases and 36 (72%) among controls. Both groups were similar as per the smoking status. The numbers of hypertensive were matched in both groups to nullify the effect of hypertension on Vitamin D and FMD. There were eight subjects with hypertension in each group. Diabetic patients were excluded from the study.
|Table 1: Demographic and cardiovascular risk factor profile of Groups 0 and 1 |
Click here to view
FMD after GTN and vitamin D levels have been shown in [Table 2] and [Table 3] respectively. Mean values of Subjects were divided into three subgroups [Table 4] according to the severity of Vitamin D deficient state as per the following levels:
|Table 2: Flow-mediated dilatation and dilatation after glyceryl trinitrate in both groups |
Click here to view
Endothelial dependent and independent dilatation was also calculated in the above mentioned 3 sub groups which are shown in [Table 5] and [Table 6] respectively.
- 25(OH) Vitamin D <20 ng/ml: Vitamin D deficient
- 25(OH) Vitamin D 20-30 ng/ml: Vitamin D insufficient
- 25(OH) Vitamin D >30 ng/ml: Normal range.
|Table 5: Endothelial-dependent dilatation in subgroups of subjects as per Vitamin D levels |
Click here to view
|Table 6: Endothelial independent dilatation in subgroups of subjects as per Vitamin D levels |
Click here to view
The correlation coefficient between FMD and 25(OH) Vitamin D was found to be positive in controls (r = 0.766, P < 0.01) [Figure 1]. Again, on analyzing the correlation between FMD and 25(OH) Vitamin D in patients of AMI, the correlation coefficient was positive (r = 0.869, P < 0.01) [Figure 2].
|Figure 1: Positive correlation coefficient between flow-mediated dilatation and 25(OH) Vitamin D|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Positive correlation coefficient between flow-mediated dilatation and 25(OH) Vitamin D among cases|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Vitamin D insufficiency affects almost 50% of the population worldwide; however, in the Indian scenario, a study done by Marwah et al.  in healthy subjects (n = 1346) reported prevalence as high as 91.2%. Although Vitamin D has been traditionally associated with bone health, adequate levels are also important for optimal cardiovascular function. The mechanisms underlying the role of Vitamin D in the prevention of heart disease remain incompletely explained. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess Vitamin D levels and FMD in patients of AMI. In addition, a correlation between Vitamin D and FMD was also studied.
The results of this study are also consistent with the growing evidence suggesting a role of Vitamin D deficiency in the occurrence and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. In a study by Fatih Akin et al. ,  low serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels were associated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Levels of 25(OH) Vitamin D were significantly lower (15.6 vs. 22.2 ng/mL; P < 0.001) in patients with CAD compared with patients without CAD. In a study conducted by Lee et al.,  to study the prevalence of Vitamin D in patients of AMI, 179 subjects (75%) out of 239 were found to have 25(OH) Vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml, which is in the deficient range. Another fifty subjects were in the insufficient range, with 25(OH) Vitamin D levels between 20 and 30 ng/ml. This placed a total of 229, of 239 subjects of AMI (96%) had 25(OH) Vitamin D levels in the suboptimal range. In a study conducted by Shor et al.  to assess Vitamin D levels in patients undergoing coronary artery catheterization, 25(OH)D levels were 19.7 ± 10.1 ng/ml in patients with significant CAD on catheterization. The high prevalence of 25(OH) Vitamin D deficiency among patients with CAD in our study is comparable to the findings Kim et al.  They found a higher prevalence Vitamin D deficiency among individuals with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a study conducted by Giovannucci et al.,  low levels of Vitamin D were found to be associated with increased incidence of myocardial infarction. In a study reported by Syal et al.,  on Indian patients undergoing coronary angiography, the mean 25(OH) Vitamin D level was 14.8 ± 9.1 ng/mL which was far lower than the normal range. The deficient state of 25(OH) Vitamin D as discussed in above-mentioned studies is comparable to our findings.
However, Pilz et al.  did not find a prevalence difference between patients with various 25(OH) Vitamin D serum levels. In a recent review and meta-analysis by Elamin et al., it is claimed that the quality of evidence linking Vitamin D and CAD as of today is of low to moderate level and did not find a statistically significant reduction in mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with low Vitamin D levels. However, other reviews done by Grandi et al.  report an inverse correlation between Vitamin D levels and the prevalence of CAD. The patients with CAD were having lower levels of 25(OH) Vitamin D than controls even in our study.
There have been very few studies done on healthy and diabetic subjects who have correlated Vitamin D and FMD. In a study by Tarcin et al.  in healthy subjects, endothelial function of 25(OH) Vitamin D deficient subjects was significantly disturbed in comparison to subjects with normal Vitamin D, whereas a significant improvement was observed after replacement with Vitamin D. They also found a positive correlation between 25(OH) Vitamin D levels and FMD which was consistent with this relationship in our study. Yiu et al.  studied Vitamin D levels and FMD in type 2 DM patients and found that Vitamin D deficiency and Vitamin D insufficiency status were independently associated with relative decrease in FMD by 33 and 19% in these groups, respectively. They suggested that endothelial dysfunction observed in type 2 DM patients was related to Vitamin D deficiency. Gepner et al.  evaluated the effects of a higher dose of Vitamin D supplementation (2500 IU daily) on several vascular parameters including FMD, as a of the marker of CVD risk, they could not found any improvement in FMD after treatment with Vitamin D in these cases.
On reviewing the literature, we could find only one study conducted by Syal et al.  done to correlate Vitamin D levels and FMD in patients of CAD. The study observed that Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with depressed vascular endothelial function as measured by brachial artery FMD. Mean FMD values were markedly reduced in patients with Vitamin D deficiency. The FMD was 4.57% in patients with 25(OH) Vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL and 10.68% in those with 25(OH) Vitamin D levels more than 20 ng/mL. They found a positive correlation between FMD and 25(OH) Vitamin D. There was no control arm in the above study. As the literature comparing the correlation between FMD and 25(OH) Vitamin D is scant, the findings of correlation in our study could not be compared to other studies.
In our study, the patients of myocardial infarction had a significantly lower 25(OH) Vitamin D levels compared to controls. The percentage of subjects with Vitamin D deficiency in the control group was 38%. Vitamin D deficiency in the general population can be attributed to a modern lifestyle and an inadequate sun exposure. If adequate measures such as food fortification or awareness campaigns are not undertaken, Vitamin D deficiency will become a significant public health problem given that it contributes to the epidemic of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, fractures and falls, cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and CAD. Although Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Indian population and is increasing, measures to screen and treat the condition are simple and feasible. The normalization of Vitamin D levels might help improve endothelial dysfunction leading to a decrease in incidence and the prevalence of CAD. This study gives an insight for developing an intervention strategy such as adequate sunlight exposure, food fortification or 25(OH) Vitamin D supplementation that may allay the consequences of its deficiency. In addition, there is a need to undertake future prospective multicenter study with larger number of subjects from Indian population to find a cause-effect relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and CAD. This may help us to initiate interventional studies to see the reversal effect with supplementation of vitamin D to halt the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients of CAD.
Limitations of study
There are a few limitations to our study. This is a single-center study. It is cross-sectional and therefore, cause-and-effect relationship determination was not possible. The sample size (100) in our study was relatively small. A single measurement of Vitamin D may not reflect lifetime status, and a persistence of Vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for endothelial dysfunction leading to progression of atherosclerosis over many years. Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels vary with geography, seasonality, latitude, altitude presumably as a result of sunlight exposure, and personal habits. Further FMD measured by ultrasound Doppler is operator dependent.
| Conclusion|| |
The present case-control and cross-sectional study were carried among patients of AMI, which revealed Vitamin D deficiency state is higher among cases of AMI. In most of the subjects (cases and controls), the 25(OH) Vitamin D levels were lower than normal. Endothelial-dependent dilatation (FMD) was found to be lower among the patients of AMI. FMD was much lower in subgroups of subjects having Vitamin D deficiency state. FMD had a positive correlation with 25(OH) Vitamin D in patients of AMI. FMD as a marker of endothelial dysfunction which is thought to be the forerunner of CAD has been positively correlated to the deficiency state of Vitamin D in all the study subjects.
This study gives us the insight to identify the population with Vitamin D deficiency which may be at higher risk of CAD. Further, need to undertake a future prospective multicenter study with larger number of subjects from Indian population to find a cause-effect relationship between Vitamin D deficiency and CAD is required. This may help us to initiate interventional studies to see the reversal effect with supplementation of Vitamin D to halt the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients of CAD.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, et al.
Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008;117:503-11.
Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Hollis BW, Rimm EB. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: A prospective study. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1174-80.
Dobnig H, Pilz S, Scharnagl H, Renner W, Seelhorst U, Wellnitz B, et al.
Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1340-9.
McGreevy C, Williams D. New insights about Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: A narrative review. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:820-6.
Thygesen K, Alpert JS, White HD; Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Redefinition of Myocardial Infarction. Universal definition of myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 2007;28:2525-38.
Corretti MC, Anderson TJ, Benjamin EJ, Celermajer D, Charbonneau F, Creager MA, et al.
Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: A report of the international brachial artery reactivity task force. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39:257-65.
Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Garg MK, Kanwar R, Narang A, Sastry A, et al.
Vitamin D status in healthy Indians aged 50 years and above. J Assoc Physicians India 2011;59:706-9.
Akin F, Ayça B, Köse N, Duran M, Sari M, Uysal OK, et al.
Serum Vitamin D levels are independently associated with severity of coronary artery disease. J Investig Med 2012;60:869-73.
Lee JH, Gadi R, Spertus JA, Tang F, O'Keefe JH. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2011;107:1636-8.
Shor R, Tirosh A, Shemesh L, Krakover R, Bar Chaim A, Mor A, et al.
25 hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients undergoing coronary artery catheterization. Eur J Intern Med 2012;23:470-3.
Kim DH, Sabour S, Sagar UN, Adams S, Whellan DJ. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in cardiovascular diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004). Am J Cardiol 2008;102:1540-4.
Syal SK, Kapoor A, Bhatia E, Sinha A, Kumar S, Tewari S, et al.
Vitamin D deficiency, coronary artery disease, and endothelial dysfunction: Observations from a coronary angiographic study in Indian patients. J Invasive Cardiol 2012;24:385-9.
Pilz S, März W, Wellnitz B, Seelhorst U, Fahrleitner-Pammer A, Dimai HP, et al.
Association of Vitamin D deficiency with heart failure and sudden cardiac death in a large cross-sectional study of patients referred for coronary angiography. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:3927-35.
Grandi NC, Breitling LP, Brenner H. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Prev Med 2010;51:228-33.
Tarcin O, Yavuz DG, Ozben B, Telli A, Ogunc AV, Yuksel M, et al.
Effect of Vitamin D deficiency and replacement on endothelial function in asymptomatic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:4023-30.
Yiu YF, Chan YH, Yiu KH, Siu CW, Li SW, Wong LY, et al.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depletion of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:E830-5.
Gepner AD, Ramamurthy R, Krueger DC, Korcarz CE, Binkley N, Stein JH. A prospective randomized controlled trial of the effects of Vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk. PLoS One 2012;7:e36617.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]