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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 535-539

Osteoporosis in otherwise healthy patients with type 2 diabetes: A prospective gender based comparative study

Department of Endocrinology, SMS Medical College and Hospitals, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Balram Sharma
SMS Medical College and Hospitals, JLN Road, Jaipur, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_108_17

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Background and Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may affect bone loss differentially in adult males and postmenopausal females. We evaluated the prevalence of osteoporosis in otherwise healthy adults with T2DM. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, adults with T2DM, aged 50 years and above, were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan at spine and hip. T-score of ≤−2.5 was defined as osteoporosis and score −2.49 to −1.0 as osteopenia at either site. Correlation of low BMD with demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters including serum Vitamin D and serum testosterone (in males) was evaluated. Results: In 200 patients, mean age was 64.5 ± 7.0 years and age differed significantly in males and females (P < 0.0001). Osteoporosis was present in 35.5% adults with T2DM. Significantly greater proportion of females had osteoporosis (49.5% vs. 22.3%, P< 0.0001). Frequency of osteoporosis at spine (33.5%) was higher than the same at hip (13.5%). Compared to males, significantly greater proportion of females had osteoporosis and osteopenia at both spine (P < 0.0001) and hip (P < 0.0001). Among all parameters assessed, a significant positive correlation of T-score at spine and hip was seen with body mass index in both males (r = 0.287, P = 0.003 at spine and r = 0.421, P< 0.0001 at hip) and females (r = 0.291, P = 0.004 at spine and r = 0.280, P = 0.010 at hip). There was no association of Vitamin D deficiency (45.5% patients) with either T-score and presence of osteoporosis either at spine (P = 0.388 and P = 0.177) or hip (P = 0.431 and P = 0.593). Conclusion: Prevalence of osteoporosis in otherwise healthy T2DM was 35.5% with greater prevalence in females than males. Body mass but not Vitamin D or testosterone has an important role in the determination of bone loss in T2DM.

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