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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 588-593

Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in relation to body mass index in Asian Indian women

1 Department of Diabetology and Epidemiology, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seethapathy Clinic and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Policy and Programmes, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium
4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Joseph Nursing Home, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Viswanathan Mohan
Madras Diabetes Research Foundation and Dr. Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, WHO Collaborating Center for Non.Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, 4, Conran Smith Road, Gopalapuram, Chennai - 600 086, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_557_16

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Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the weight gain during pregnancy (using Institute of Medicine guidelines) among Asian Indians across different body mass index (BMI) categories (using World Health Organization Asia Pacific BMI cut points) and to compare the pregnancy outcomes in each of the different BMI categories. Methodology: Retrospective records of 2728 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and private maternity centers in Chennai, South India, from January 2011 to January 2014 were studied. Pregnancy outcomes were analyzed in relation to BMI and weight gain across different BMI categories. Results: Overweight and obese women who gained more weight during pregnancy were at high risk of delivering macrosomic infants (overweight - odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–5.2, P = 0.02 and obese - OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.4, P = 0.01). In addition, obese women who gained more weight were also at high risk of preterm labor (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8; P = 0.01), cesarean section (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5; P< 0.001), and preeclampsia (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1–7.2, P = 0.03). Normal weight and overweight women who gained less weight had a protective effect from cesarean section and macrosomia. Conclusions: Overweight/obese women who gained more weight than recommended are at a high risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Normal and overweight women who gained weight less than recommended have low risk for cesarean section and macrosomia. However, they have a higher (statistically insignificant) risk for low birth weight and preterm birth. This highlights the need for gaining adequate weight during pregnancy.

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