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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 116-120

Maternal and perinatal outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi


1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Venus Dalal
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_582_17

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Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years. Another 191 women with normal pregnancy without GDM and other medical conditions were taken as control. The baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, religion, and socioeconomic status) were noted in all cases. Diagnosis of GDM was made using oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g glucose. GDM patients were started on diet following which insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents were given if required. Maternal and perinatal outcome was noted in all women.Results: The prevalence of GDM was 5.72% (170/2970). Most patients (79.41%) could be controlled on diet alone. However, 21 (12.35%) needed insulin and 14 (8.23%) needed oral hypoglycemic agents. Middle socioeconomic status was more common in GDM than control and pregnancy-induced hypertension was more common in GDM (13.5%) than in control (6.3%) (P = 0.019). Mode of delivery was not different in two groups. Instrumental deliveries and postpartum hemorrhage were also similar. However, mean birth weight was significantly higher in GDM (2848 ± 539 g) than in control (2707 ± 641 g) (P = 0.004). Incidence of large-for-date babies was also higher (28.2%) in GDM than control (19.4%) (P = 0.005). In neonatal complication, hypoglycemia was significantly higher in GDM (20.6%) than in control (5.2%) (P = 0.001). However, the incidence of hyperbilirubinemia and congenital malformations was not significantly different in two groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of GDM was 5.72% in this study. Adequate treatment of GDM on diet, oral hypoglycemic agents, or insulin to achieve euglycemia can achieve near-normal maternal and neonatal outcome.


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