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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-35

Diabetic retinopathy awareness and associations with multiple comorbidities: Insights from DIAMOND Study


1 Director, Diabetes and Thyroid Care Center, Borivali West, Mumbai, India
2 Director, Aayushi Diabetes Center, Mumbai, India
3 Chairman and Medical Director, Aditya Jyot Eye Hospital Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Kiran Shah
Diabetes and Thyroid Care Center, Borivali West, Mumbai - 400 092, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_240_17

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Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is leading cause of visual impairment in working-age adults. Macular edema can occur with or without other signs of retinopathy. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study conducted over 2 years in patients (>40 years of age) having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Outcome measures were to analyze awareness and prevalence of DR and association of DR with identified risk factors. Results: Overall 6000 T2DM patients over 2 years were retrospectively evaluated. Almost 63% (n = 3780) of patients were unaware that diabetes affects the retina. Almost 65% (n = 3894) of patients were reported to have DR. Total 78.98% of males, and 69.50% of females had DR. There was a significant increase in the incidence of DR with age (P < 0.00001). Almost 60.80% (n = 3653) of patients having DR were from working age group (40–70 years). Evidently, 42% (n = 2520) of patients having DR had HbA1c > 9% (P < 0.00001). Overall 52.02% (n = 1820) of smokers were reported of DR (P < 0.00001). With the increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides, there was a significant increase in DR incidence (P < 0.00001). A strong association was observed between hypertension and DR, with 42.6% (n = 2556) of patients having coexistence of hypertension and DR (P < 0.00001). Patients having diabetic kidney disease (DKD) also reported DR. A high proportion of patients (49.11%, n = 2947) had co-existence of cardiac morbidity and DR. Almost 47% (n = 2845) of patients having DR were also reported anemia. Totally 43.85% (n = 2631) of patients with microalbuminuria had two times more risk of developing proliferative DR (P < 0.00001). The statistical significance for the association of DR with risk factors, calculated by Pearson Chi-Square method of analysis was found statistically significant (P < 0.00001). Conclusion: The study reported the high prevalence and significantly high unawareness for DR in T2DM patients. All the risk factors are independently and significantly associated with DR (P < 0.00001).


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