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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 672-677

Impact of glycemic levels in Type 2 diabetes on periodontitis

1 Department of Dentistry, Max Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Apollo Center of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Max Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Sangeeta Dhir
House # 1079, Sector 17, Faridabad, Haryana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_566_17

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Aim: The aim is to study the effect of glycemic level in Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on periodontal health. Materials and Method: Type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic patients in the age group of 35–80 years (n = 1700) were recruited for the study. Periodontal examination included as follows: Probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession, and bleeding on probing. Periodontitis was diagnosed based on the CAL levels and diabetes was diagnosed based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were assessed for cardiovascular risk. Patients were characterized into two groups as follows: diabetic (n = 1235) and nondiabetic (n = 465). Sociodemographic variables included were: age, sex, obesity, smoking, duration of diabetes, and periodontitis were assessed. SPSS version was used for all the statistical assessments. Conclusion: HbA1c and lipid levels were statistically significant with the severity of periodontitis (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]: HbA1c 1.34 [1.019–1.21]; Total cholesterol 1.01 [1.03–1.42]; triglycerides 1.01 [1.01–1.14]; LDL 1.028 [1.08–1.71]). Smoking and obesity were also found to be significantly associated with the presence of periodontitis [OR (95% CI): smoking 1.35 (1.10–1.67); obesity 1.23 (1.73–2.05)]. The study concluded that uncontrolled HbA1c levels and elevated cardiovascular risk factors significantly increase the severity of periodontitis in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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