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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 774-779

Clinical spectrum of disorders of sex development: A cross-sectional observational study

1 Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Govenment Medical College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Bemina, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Mudasir Nazir
Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir - 190 011
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_159_18

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Objective: Disorders of sex development (DSD) constitutes a small but difficult and equally important area of endocrinology. It is often a social emergency as the decision regarding sex assignment in these cases is extremely disturbing and difficult to both families and healthcare professionals. Our study was devised to assess the clinical and chromosomal profile of patients with suspected DSD and classify them according to the new DSD consensus document. Subjects and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional observational study carried out in the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care hospital from August 2012 to August 2014. All patients with suspected DSD in the age group of 0–19 years were included. After detailed history and examination, karyotyping, abdominal sonography, and hormonal analysis were done. Additional studies like gonadal biopsy, laparoscopy, and hormone stimulation tests were done in selected cases. Results: About 41 patients were included in the study. The mean age of presentation was 87 months (1 day to 16 years). Only seven (13.7%) patients presented in neonatal period. In total, 25 patients had ambiguous genitalia; 46, XX DSD were diagnosed in 24 (58.5%) patients, 46, XY DSD in 10 (24.4%) patients, and sex chromosome DSD in 7 (17.1%). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was the commonest disease diagnosed in 21 (51.2%) patients. Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, 46, XX ovotesticular disorder, and 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis were diagnosed in 3, 3, 4, 3, and 5 patients, respectively. Eleven patients with CAH presented in shock and six had history of sib deaths. Conclusion: 46, XX DSD were the commonest etiological group in our study and CAH was the commonest individual disease. There is a need for educating general public and practitioners regarding DSD to allow early intervention. Moreover, there is a need to introduce routine neonatal screening for CAH in our country.

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