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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 175-183

SAVOR-TIMI to DECLARE-TIMI: A review on cardiovascular outcome trials of incretin-modulators and gliflozins

1 Department of Endocrinology, G.D Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, G.D Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Awadhesh K Singh
Department of Endocrinology, G.D Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_12_19

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Introduction: Since 2008 United State (US) food drug administration mandate, several newer anti-diabetic drugs (ADD) have undergone a mandatory cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial (CVOT) in type diabetes (T2DM) patients with high CV risk. These includes CVOT done with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RAs). Several double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled CVOT have been presented and published in the last decade (2008-2018). Aims and Objectives: We systematically searched the database of PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2018 using specific key words. Subsequently, we pooled the data of different cardiovascular endpoints and made a comparative forest plot using GraphPad software Inc. Prism Version 8, US. Results and Conclusion: Saxagliptin, alogliptin, sitagliptin and linagliptin are CV neutral drugs. Saxagliptin showed a significantly higher hospitalization due to heart failure (HHF). Empagliflozin and canagliflozin have shown a significant reduction in composite of 3-point major cardiac adverse events (3P-MACE). Additionally, empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin significantly reduced the HHF and the composite of CV death or HHF. Moreover, empagliflozin showed significant reduction in CV- and all-cause death in patients with T2DM with established CV disease. While both exendin-backbone-based GLP-1RAs such as lixisenatide and extended-release exenatide were CV neutral; GLP-1-backbone-based GLP-1RAs such as liraglutide, semaglutide and albiglutide shown a significant reduction in the composite of 3-P MACE. Additionally, liraglutide shown a significant reduction in CV- and all-cause death. Moreover, semaglutide reduced non-fatal stroke and albiglutide reduced myocardial infarction, while extended-release exenatide reduced all-cause death; however, P value of significance for these outcomes should be considered nominal.

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