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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 367-372

Correlation of olfactory phenotype by Indian smell identification test and quantitative MRI of olfactory apparatus in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

1 Department of Endocrinology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Sandeep Kumar Mathur
D- 116 Shiwad Area, Bapu Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan - 302 015
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_28_19

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Objectives: Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) can be associated with anosmia/hyposmia. The objective of this study is to evaluate olfaction by Indian smell identification test (INSIT) and measure olfactory bulbs (OBs) and sulci using dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with IHH and correlate MRI findings with INSIT. Methods: Forty patients with IHH underwent (a) brief smell identification test (INSIT) and (b) MRI of the olfactory apparatus. The size of olfactory sulcus and bulb was quantified and compared with the normative data obtained in 22 controls. The agreement between INSIT and MRI was assessed using Kappa index. Results: Of the 40 patients, 8 patients who reported abnormal smell sensation and 12 of the remaining 32 patients who reported normal smell sensation historically had a low score on INSIT. Thus, there were 20 patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and the rest 20 were normosmic IHH (nIHH). Of 40 patients with IHH, MRI finding was suggestive of normal (n = 16), hypoplastic (n = 12), and aplastic (n = 12) olfactory apparatus. All 20 patients with KS have olfactory abnormalities (n = 12 aplastic, n = 8 hypoplastic), and 4 of 20 nIHH have olfactory abnormalities (hypoplastic only) on MRI. There is (a) significant positive correlation (r = 0.54, P = 0.013) between the OB volume (MRI) and smell test scores and (b) moderate agreement (Kappa index: 0.49) between smell defect (INSIT score ≤ 4) and aplastic olfactory apparatus. Conclusion: Self-reporting of smell significantly underestimates olfactory phenotype, and hence we recommend an objective smell test to differentiate KS from nIHH. Olfactory phenotype significantly correlates with MRI quantification of olfactory apparatus in IHH.

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