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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 438-445

Prevalence of end-organ damage, beta cell reserve, and exocrine pancreas defect in fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes: An Eastern India perspective

1 Department of Endocrinology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, AJC Bose Road, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Medica Superspecialty Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4 Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolic Disorders, Venkateshwar Hospitals, Dwarka, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Beatrice Anne
Department of Endocrinology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_214_19

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Background: Data on prevalence and burden of end-organ damage in fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (FCPD) from eastern India is scant. This study investigated the burden of end-organ damage and exocrine pancreatic defect in FCPD patients in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: Consecutive FCPD patients underwent evaluation of glycemic control, C-peptide, fecal elastase, body fat percent, tests for cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN), neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy which were compared with data from type-1 diabetes (T1DM) and type-2 diabetes (T2DM). Results: Data from 101 FCPD, 41 T1DM, 40 T2DM, and 40 controls were analyzed. Body fat percent was lowest in FCPD and T1DM. Similarly, fasting and stimulated C-peptide was significantly lowest in T1DM, followed by FCPD. Significant elevations in stimulated C-peptide were observed in FCPD. Fecal elastase was lowest in FCPD. Exocrine pancreas defect in FCPD, T1DM, and T2DM was 100%, 53.66%, 27.5%, respectively. HbA1c was worst in FCPD. About 40% of FCPD patients had CAN while 13.33% had borderline CAN. Isolated parasympathetic dysfunction was the commonest (66.67%) among them. FCPD patients with CAN had lower fecal elastase, higher HbA1c, microalbuminuria, steatorrhea, neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy, compared to those without CAN. On binary logistic regression, diabetes duration was a significant predictor of end-organ damage in FCPD. Fecal elastase and body fat percent were independent predictors for insulin therapy in FCPD. Conclusion: CAN is common in FCPD while exocrine pancreas defect is most severe in FCPD followed by T1DM and T2DM. Fecal elastase has an important prognostic role for insulinization in FCPD. Role of pancreatic enzyme replacement on glycemic control in diabetes with exocrine pancreas defect needs investigation.

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