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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 507-513

Vitamin D, thyroid autoimmunity and cancer: An interplay of different factors

1 Department of Endocrinology, CEDAR Super-Specialty Clinics, Dwarka, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Rheumatology, CEDAR Super-Specialty Clinics, Dwarka, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Endocrinology, Apex Super-Specialty Hospital, Rohtak, Haryana, India
4 Department of Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
5 Department of Endocrinology, Max Superspecialty Hospital, Patparganj, New Delhi, India
6 Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India

Correspondence Address:
Deep Dutta
Department of Endocrinology, Center for Endocrinology Diabetes Arthritis and Rheumatism Super-specialty Clinics, Sector-13, Dwarka, New Delhi - 110 078
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_526_19

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Background and Aims: In spite of large volume of data linking Vitamin D with cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, cancer, and virtually every organ system, Vitamin D and thyroid is a lesser-known aspect of Vitamin D in clinical practice. This article intends to highlight the current literature on the impact of Vitamin D status and supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity and cancer. Methods: References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed for articles published to from 1950 to August 2019 using the terms “thyroid” [MeSH Terms] AND “Vitamin D” [MeSH Terms] OR “thyroid” [All Fields] AND “Vitamin D” [All Fields]. Results: Significant inverse correlation was documented between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and serum 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D (25OHD). TPOAb positivity is more prevalent in Vitamin D deficient individuals. A large volume of medical literature is available from observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity. Data from interventional studies documenting beneficial effects of Vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity is also available, but lesser than that from observational studies. Short-term high dose oral Vitamin D supplementation reduces TPOAb titers. Certain Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism have been linked to increased occurrence of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). Vitamin D deficiency, decreased circulating calcitriol has been linked to increased thyroid cancer. Certain VDR gene polymorphisms have been linked with increased as well as decreased occurrence of thyroid cancer. Data is scant on use of Vitamin D and its analogues for treating thyroid cancer. Conclusion: In spite of large volume of medical literature from observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity and cancer, meaningful concrete clinical data on impact of Vitamin D supplementation on hard clinical end points in these disorders is lacking, and should be the primary area of research in the next decade.

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