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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 256-259

Profile of auto-antibodies (Disease related and other) in children with type 1 diabetes

Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Sujoy Ghosh
Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_63_20

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Background: Type 1 diabetes is associated with several disease-related and other organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Data related to various auto-antibodies in Type 1 diabetes in India is limited. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 92 subjects with T1DM (33 males, 59 females) were evaluated for T1DM related antibodies (autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD), autoantibodies to protein tyrosine phosphatise (anti-IA2), anti-islet cell antibody (ICA), insulin autoantibody (IAA), anti-Zinc Transporter(ZnT8) and other organ specific auto antibodies like anti–thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb), IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (IgA anti-tTG), anti-21-hydroxylase, and anti-ovarian antibody (in females). Results: Anti-GAD, IA-2, islet cell antibody, insulin autoantibodies (IAA), ZnT8 antibody were present in 79.3%, 32.6%, 61.9%, 63%, and 20.65% subjects, respectively. Only 2.2% patients with Type 1 diabetes were antibody negative. At least one antibody was found in 97.8% and at least two antibodies in 67.3%. The presence of anti-TPO, anti-thyroglobulin, IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti 21-hydroxylase were found in 51%, 25%, 22.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Anti-ovarian antibody was absent in all females of our study population. The duration of diabetes positively correlated with the number of T1DM specific antibody and also with GAD antibody positivity. Anti TPO positivity correlated with the age of onset of T1DM, but not with the duration of disease or presence of other T1DM specific autoantibody. Conclusions: T1DM is associated with a high prevalence of autoantibodies and antibody negative T1DM is rare. The association with other organ specific antibody (especially thyroid and adrenal glands) and celiac disease is also substantial, which reinforces the importance of regular thyroid and celiac disease screening in T1DM subjects. The duration of diabetes positively correlated with number of T1DM specific antibodies.

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