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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 260-264

Juvenile hypothyroidism: A clinical perspective from Eastern India

1 Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, KPC Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Debmalya Sanyal
36 Block H New Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal - 700 053
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_627_19

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Introduction: Juvenile hypothyroidism (JH) can have deleterious effects on growth, pubertal development, and scholastic performance of children. In India, there is a paucity of data on acquired hypothyroidism in children, in contrast to congenital hypothyroidism. Our objective was to assess the profile of JH in a referral clinic from eastern India. Materials and Methods: For this study, 100 patients with documented acquired hypothyroidism (subclinical and overt) (aged <18 years), from eastern India, were evaluated retrospectively. Evaluation included history as well as clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonography parameters. Results: Out of the 100 participants, 74% had overt hypothyroidism (OH), while 26% had subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). The majority of the participants were females (66%). The mean age at detection was 8.95 ± 3.96 years in the SCH group and 8.38 ± 3.29 years in the OH group. A family history of thyroid disorder and/or goiter was present in 35% of the patients. Goiter was the most common presentation in both SCH and OH, with overall prevalence of 58%. Height below 3rd percentile was significantly higher (28%) in OH group compared to 4% in SCH group. Five percent of OH subjects were obese. Worsening school performance was reported in only 9% of subjects. Only 4% (all males) presented with delayed puberty, while one female (1%) presented with precocious puberty. Sixty-four percent of OH group were TPOAb positive compared to only 15% in SCH group. Five percent of our study population had type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 7% had Down syndrome (DS). Conclusion: In our study, JH showed significantly higher female preponderance and TPOAb positivity in OH group, in comparison to SCH group. Family history of thyroid disorder and/or goiter was present in a significant proportion of patients. Goiter was the most common presentation of JH. Height deceleration, weight gain, and fatigue were the other common presentations. Prevalence of short stature was significantly higher in OH group. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent notion, only 5% of OH were obese and worsening school performance was observed to be rare. Puberty disorders (both delayed and precocious) may occur in JH as seen here. Because of strong association, those with T1DM or DS should be screened for JH and vice versa in TIDM.

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