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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 95-102

Acute neuroendocrine profile in predicting outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury: A study from a tertiary care center in South India

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Beatrice Anne
Department of Endocrinology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Room no. 6, Hyderabad, Telangana - 500082
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijem.ijem_194_21

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Background: Pituitary dysfunction following severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is significant and may be correlated with the outcomes. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the early changes in pituitary hormone levels after sTBI and to correlate with outcomes in terms of severity and mortality. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study, involving consecutive patients of 16–60 years, with sTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale GCS < 9) presenting to the hospital within 24 h of trauma. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Serum samples were collected in the morning (08–10 am) on day 1 and day 4 for cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and prolactin (Chemiluminescence immunoassay). Outcome was assessed in terms of mortality (which included both immediate and at 3 months) and Glasgow outcome scale at 3 months. Results: 54 patients were studied. Mean cortisol on day 4 was 28.5 μg/dL in alive patients and 13.7 μg/dL in patients deceased at 3 months (P < 0.001). Patients who were deceased at 3 months had significantly lower T3 on day 4 (0.973 vs 1.4 ng/dL) and lower T4 (8.1 μg/L vs 6.1 μg/dL) as compared to patients who survived (P = 0.049 and 0.005, respectively). Acute phase TSH on day 4 levels were significantly lower in patients deceased at 3 months. There was no significant difference in the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Day 4 cortisol, T3, T4, and TSH correlated with the outcomes at 3 months and hence have predictive value post-sTBI.

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