Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

REVIEW ARTICLE
Year
: 2014  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 150--158

Gynecomastia: Clinical evaluation and management


Neslihan Cuhaci, Sefika Burcak Polat, Berna Evranos, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Cakir 
 Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Sefika Burcak Polat
Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara
Turkey

Gynecomastia is the benign enlargement of male breast glandular tissue and is the most common breast condition in males. At least 30% of males will be affected during their life. Since it causes anxiety, psychosocial discomfort and fear of breast cancer, early diagnostic evaluation is important and patients usually seek medical attention. Gynecomastia was reported to cause an imbalance between estrogen and androgen action or an increased estrogen to androgen ratio, due to increased estrogen production, decreased androgen production or both. Evaluation of gynecomastia must include a detailed medical history, clinical examination, specific blood tests, imaging and tissue sampling. Individual treatment requirements can range from simple reassurance to medical treatment or even surgery. The main aim of any intervention is to relieve the symptoms and exclude other etiological factors.


How to cite this article:
Cuhaci N, Polat SB, Evranos B, Ersoy R, Cakir B. Gynecomastia: Clinical evaluation and management.Indian J Endocr Metab 2014;18:150-158


How to cite this URL:
Cuhaci N, Polat SB, Evranos B, Ersoy R, Cakir B. Gynecomastia: Clinical evaluation and management. Indian J Endocr Metab [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Oct 29 ];18:150-158
Available from: https://www.ijem.in/article.asp?issn=2230-8210;year=2014;volume=18;issue=2;spage=150;epage=158;aulast=Cuhaci;type=0