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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: The multi-level interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the endocrine system. Viral particles may directly infect the endocrine tissues via ACE-2 receptors and cause cytopathology or apoptosis as in the pancreas. Other mechanisms are immune cell/antibody-mediated damage as in subacute thyroiditis. A final mechanism is inflammatory cytokine-mediated dysregulation of the endocrine axis to cause functional hypopituitarism and relative adrenal insufficiency. Clinical features reported so far are marked in green

Figure 1: The multi-level interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the endocrine system. Viral particles may directly infect the endocrine tissues via ACE-2 receptors and cause cytopathology or apoptosis as in the pancreas. Other mechanisms are immune cell/antibody-mediated damage as in subacute thyroiditis. A final mechanism is inflammatory cytokine-mediated dysregulation of the endocrine axis to cause functional hypopituitarism and relative adrenal insufficiency. Clinical features reported so far are marked in green